Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 November 2015


Chun-Zi Peng
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine University of Missouri
Julia D. Grant
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine
Andrew C. Heath
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine
Angela M. Reiersen
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine
Richard C. Mulligan
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine
Andrey P. Anokhin
Affiliation:
Washington University School of Medicine
Corresponding

Abstract

To investigate familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity across adolescence, we collected maternal ratings of 339 twin pairs at ages 12, 14, and 16, and estimated the transmitted and new familial influences on attention and activity as measured by the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale. Familial influences were substantial for both traits across adolescence: genetic influences accounted for 54%–73% (attention) and 31%–73% (activity) of the total variance, and shared environmental influences accounted for 0%–22% of the attention variance and 13%–57% of the activity variance. The longitudinal stability of individual differences in attention and activity was largely accounted for by familial influences transmitted from previous ages. Innovations over adolescence were also partially attributable to familial influences. Studying the full range of variability in attention and activity may facilitate our understanding of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder's etiology and intervention.


Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google ScholarPubMed
Arnett, A. B., Pennington, B. F., Friend, A., Willcutt, E. G., Byrne, B., Samuelsson, S., et al. (2013). The SWAN captures variance at the negative and positive ends of the ADHD symptom dimension. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17, 152162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barkley, R. A. (2003). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder New York: Guilford Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 546557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Milberger, S., Curtis, S., Chen, L., Marrs, A., et al. (1996). Predictors of persistence and remission of ADHD into adolescence: Results from a four-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 343351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boomsma, D. I., & Molenaar, P. C. (1987). The genetic analysis of repeated measures: I. simplex models. Behavior Genetics, 17, 111123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brikell, I., Kuja-Halkola, R., & Larsson, H. (2015). Heritability of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part B. Neuropsychiatric Genetics. Advance online publication.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burt, S. A. (2009). Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: A meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 608637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burt, S. A., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Klump, K. L. (2012). Additional evidence against shared environmental contributions to attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems. Behavior Genetics, 42, 711721.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Casey, B. J., Oliveri, M. E., & Insel, T. (2014). A neurodevelopmental perspective on the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework. Biological Psychiatry, 76, 350353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Mental health in the United States: Prevalence of diagnosis and medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54, 842847.Google ScholarPubMed
Chang, Z., Lichtenstein, P., Asherson, P. J., & Larsson, H. (2013). Developmental twin study of attention problems: High heritabilities throughout development. JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 311318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costello, E. J., Copeland, W., & Angold, A. (2011). Trends in psychopathology across the adolescent years: What changes when children become adolescents, and when adolescents become adults? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52, 10151025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuthbert, B. N. (2014). The RDoC framework: Facilitating transition from ICD/DSM to dimensional approaches that integrate neuroscience and psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 13, 2835.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eaves, L. J., Long, J., & Heath, A. C. (1986). A theory of developmental change in quantitative phenotypes applied to cognitive development. Behavior Genetics, 16, 143162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flint, J. (1998). Behavioral phenotypes: Conceptual and methodological issues. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 235240.3.0.CO;2-V>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freitag, C. M., Rohde, L. A., Lempp, T., & Romanos, M. (2010). Phenotypic and measurement influences on heritability estimates in childhood ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 311323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greven, C. U., Asherson, P., Rijsdijk, F. V., & Plomin, R. (2011). A longitudinal twin study on the association between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 623632.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greven, C. U., Rijsdijk, F. V., & Plomin, R. (2011). A twin study of ADHD symptoms in early adolescence: Hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness show substantial genetic overlap but also genetic specificity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 265275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hay, D. A., Bennett, K. S., Levy, F., Sergeant, J., & Swanson, J. (2007). A twin study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions rated by the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior (SWAN) Scale. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 700705.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kan, K. J., Dolan, C. V., Nivard, M. G., Middeldorp, C. M., van Beijsterveldt, C. E., Willemsen, G., et al. (2013). Genetic and environmental stability in attention problems across the lifespan: Evidence from The Netherlands Twin Register. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 1225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuntsi, J., Rijsdijk, F., Ronald, A., Asherson, P., & Plomin, R. (2005). Genetic influences on the stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms from early to middle childhood. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 647654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuntsi, J., & Stevenson, J. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: II. The role of genetic factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 42, 211219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lakes, K. D., Swanson, J. M., & Riggs, M. (2012). The reliability and validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior rating scales in a preschool sample: Continuum measures of hyperactivity and inattention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 510516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lange, K., Westlake, J., & Spence, M. A. (1976). Extensions to pedigree analysis: III. Variance components by the scoring method. Annals of Human Genetics, 39, 485491.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Larsson, J. O. (2006). Genetic contributions to the development of ADHD subtypes from childhood to adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 973981.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsson, J. O., Larsson, H., & Lichtenstein, P. (2004). Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change of ADHD symptoms between 8 and 13 years of age: A longitudinal twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 12671275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, F., Hay, D. A., McStephen, M., Wood, C., & Waldman, I. (1997). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A category or a continuum? Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 737744.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLoughlin, G., Ronald, A., Kuntsi, J., Asherson, P., & Plomin, R. (2007). Genetic support for the dual nature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Substantial genetic overlap between the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive components. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 9991008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2012). MPlus version 7 [Computer software]. Los Angeles: Author.Google Scholar
Nadder, T. S., Rutter, M., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., & Eaves, L. J. (2002). Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement. Psychological Medicine, 32, 3953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neale, M. C. (2004). Statistical modeling with Mx. Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Neale, M. C., & Cardon, L. R. (1992). Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nikolas, M. A., & Burt, S. A. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pingault, J. B., Viding, E., Galera, C., Greven, C. U., Zheng, Y., Plomin, R., et al. (2015). Genetic and environmental influences on the developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms from childhood to adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 651658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., Knopik, V. S., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (Eds.). (2013). Behavioral genetics. New York: Worth.Google ScholarPubMed
Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 56, 345365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polderman, T. J., Derks, E. M., Hudziak, J. J., Verhulst, F. C., Posthuma, D., & Boomsma, D. I. (2007). Across the continuum of attention skills: A twin study of the SWAN ADHD rating scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48, 10801087.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polderman, T. J., Posthuma, D., De Sonneville, L. M., Verhulst, F. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2006). Genetic analyses of teacher ratings of problem behavior in 5-year-old twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 122130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Posthuma, D., & Polderman, T. J. (2013). What have we learned from recent twin studies about the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders? Current Opinion in Neurology, 26, 111121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Price, T. S., Simonoff, E., Asherson, P., Curran, S., Kuntsi, J., Waldman, I., et al. (2005). Continuity and change in preschool ADHD symptoms: Longitudinal genetic analysis with contrast effects. Behavior Genetics, 35, 121132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramtekkar, U. P., Reiersen, A. M., Todorov, A. A., & Todd, R. D. (2010). Sex and age differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and diagnoses: Implications for DSM-V and ICD-11. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 217228.Google ScholarPubMed
Reiersen, A. M. (2005). Twin study of the longitudinal course of ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 625666; author reply 666–667.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reiersen, A. M., & Todorov, A. A. (2013). Exploration of ADHD subtype definitions and co-occurring psychopathology in a Missouri population-based large sibship sample. Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, 1, 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rijsdijk, F. V., & Sham, P. C. (2002). Analytic approaches to twin data using structural equation models. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 3, 119133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
SAS Institute Inc. (2008). SAS 9.2 user's guide. Cary, NC: Author.Google Scholar
Saudino, K. J., & Cherny, S. S. (2001). Parental ratings of temperament in twins. In Infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on developmental change (pp. 89110). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Saudino, K. J., & Zapfe, J. A. (2008). Genetic influences on activity level in early childhood: Do situations matter? Child Development, 79, 930943.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
StataCorp. (2005). Stata statistical software: Release 9.2 [Computer software]. College Station, TX: Author.Google Scholar
Swanson, J., Posner, M., Fusella, J., Wasdell, M., Sommer, T., & Fan, J. (2001). Genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 3, 92100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swanson, J., Schuck, S., Mann, M., Carlson, C., Hartman, K., Sergeant, J., et al. (2005). Catergorical and dimensional definitions and evaluations of symptoms of ADHD: The SNAP and the SWAN Ratings Scale. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 10, 5170.Google Scholar
Swanson, J. M., Wigal, T., & Lakes, K. (2009). DSM-V and the future diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 11, 399406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thapar, A., Harrington, R., Ross, K., & McGuffin, P. (2000). Does the definition of ADHD affect heritability? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 15281536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thapar, A., Langley, K., Asherson, P., & Gill, M. (2007). Gene-environment interplay in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of a developmental perspective. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Todd, R. D., Huang, H., Todorov, A. A., Neuman, R. J., Reiersen, A. M., Henderson, C. A., et al. (2008). Predictors of stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes from childhood to young adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 7685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van der Sluis, S., Posthuma, D., Nivard, M. G., Verhage, M., & Dolan, C. V. (2013). Power in GWAS: Lifting the curse of the clinical cut-off. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wood, A. C., Buitelaar, J., Rijsdijk, F., Asherson, P., & Kuntsi, J. (2010). Rethinking shared environment as a source of variance underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Comment on Burt (2009). Psychological Bulletin, 136, 331340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, A. C., Saudino, K. J., Rogers, H., Asherson, P., & Kuntsi, J. (2007). Genetic influences on mechanically-assessed activity level in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48, 695702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 109 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 3rd December 2020. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-b4dcdd7-bf5bq Total loading time: 0.377 Render date: 2020-12-03T16:57:20.916Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Thu Dec 03 2020 15:59:09 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": false, "languageSwitch": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *