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Totalitarianism: Propaganda, Perseverance, and Protest: Strategies for Clerical Survival Amid the German Church Struggle

  • Kyle Jantzen (a1)

Extract

The Protestant historiography of the German Church Struggle has been shaped largely by its attention to two fundamental issues. The first has been the intrachurch struggle dominated by two churchpolitical factions: the Faith Movement of the German Christians and the Confessing Church. German Christians whole-heartedly endorsed the government of Adolf Hitler, campaigned to align the organization, theology, and practice of the twenty-eight German Protestant Land Churches with the racial and authoritarian values of the National Socialist regime and worked to create a centralized Reich church under a powerful Reich bishop. The Confessing Church stood for theological orthodoxy and ecclesiastical independence, rejected the authority of the Land Church governments that had fallen under the control of German Christians, and asserted itself as the uniquely legitimate church government in Germany.

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1. Early works on the German Christian Movement include Buchheim, Hans, Glaubenskrise im Dritten Reich: Drei Kapitel nationalsozialistischer Religionspolitik (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1953);Meier, Kurt, Die Deutschen Christen: Das Bild einer Bewegung im KirchenkampJdes Dritten Retches (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1964);Zabel, James, Nazism and the Pastors: A Study of the Ideas of Three “Deutsche Christen” Groups, American Academy of Religion Dissertation Series, ed. Little, H. Ganse, No. 14 (Missoula: Scholars, 1976).Recently, several new works have appeared, including Bergen, Doris, Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1996);Lachele, Rainer, Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Glaube: Die “Deutsche Christen” in Wurttemberg 1925–1960, Quellen und Forschungen zur württembergischen Kirchengeschichte, ed. Brecht, Martin and Ehmer, Hermann, No. 12 (Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1994);Weiling, Christoph, Die “Christliche-deutsche Bewegung”: Eine Studie zum konservativen Protestantismus in der Weimarer Republik, Arbeiten zur kirchlichen Zeitgeschichte, Series B, No. 28 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998).

2. Among the voluminous literature on the Confessing Church, its leading figures, and its foundation at the Barmen Synod, see Cochrane, Arthur, The Church's Confession under Hitler (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962);Littell, Franklin and Locke, Hubert, eds., The German Church Struggle and the Holocaust (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1974);Locke, Hubert, ed., The Church Confronts the Nazis: Barmen Then and Now, Toronto Studies in Theology 16 (Toronto: Edwin Mellon 1984);Locke, Hubert, ed., The Barme Confession: Papers from the Seattle Assembly, Toronto Studies in Theology 26 (Queenston: Edwin Mellon, 1986);Baranowski, Shelley, The Confessing Church, Conservative Elites, and the Nazi State, Texts and Studies in Religion 28 (New York: Edwin Mellon, 1986);Barnett, Victoria, For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992);Kersting, Andreas, Kirchenordnung und Widerstand: Der Kampf um den Aufbau der Bekennenden Kirche der altpreufüschen Union aufgrund des Dahlemer Notrechts von 1934 bis 1937, Heidelberger Untersuchungen zu Widerstand, Judenverfolgung und Kirchenkampf im Dritten Reich, No. 4 (Gütersloh: Christian Kaiser, 1994);Prolingheuer, Hans, “Der ungekämpfte Kirchenkampf 1933–1945—das politische Versagen der Bekennenden Kirche,” Neue Stimme Sonderheft 6 (1983): 334;Helmreich, Ernst Christian, “The Nature and Structure of the Confessing Church in Germany under Hitler,” Journal of Church and State 12 (1970): 405–20;Wall, Donald, “The Confessing Church and the Second World War,” journal of Church and State 23 (1981): 1534;Bethge, Eberhard and Barnett, Victoria, Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Biogaphy, rev. ed. (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000).

3. In the standard English histories of the German Church Struggle and its group participants, only Victoria Barnett delves extensively into parish-level events. Her examples, however, are selected from Confessing Church accounts and are not indicative of the general nature of parish or district church politics in any particular region of the Third Reich.Baranowski, , Confessing Church;Barnett, , For the Soul of the People;Bergen, , Twisted Cross;Conway, John, The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933–1945 (New York: Basic Books, 1968);Helmreich, Ernst Christian, The German Churches under Hitler: Background, Struggle, and Epilogue (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1979);Scholder, Klaus, The Churches and the Third Reich, 2 vols., trans. Bowden, John (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988).

4. Württemberg Superior Church Council to the District Superintendent's Office, Ravensburg, 3 March 1934, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b;Schäfer, Gerhard, ed., Die evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg und der Nationalsozialismus, Vol. 2, Um eine deutsche Reichskirche (Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1972), 591–99and Vol. 3, Der Einbruch des Reichsbischofs in die Wurttembergische Landeskirche 1934 (Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1974), 442.

5. Schäfer, , ed., Die evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg, 2: 511; 3: 42, 117–21, 195–97, 592, 600–601;and Vol. 4, Die Intakte Landeskirche 1935–1936 (Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1977), 680–81;Lächele, Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Glaube, 85–86;Aktennotiz, 1–5, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger;Auszug aus der Chronik der Kirchenwirren von Dr. Joachim Ganger (Gotthard-Briefe), 1–3, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

6. Michael Jag, Karl Steger: ein Pfarrer in Friedrichshafen als Deutscher Christ, Prüfungsarbeit zur II. theologischen Dienstprüfung, 13–14, Stadtarchiv Friedrichshafen.

7. Schäfer, , ed., Die evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg, 4: 119–20;Pastor Karl Steger in Friedrichshafen to Dekan Schnaufer, 4 November 1946, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger;Pastor Schmid of Friedrichshafen to the Württemberg Superior Church Council, 10 January 1944, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b.

8. Evangelisches Gemeindebhitt Friedrichshafen, July 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 54d.

9. Evangelisches Gemeindeblatt Friedrichshafen, July 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 54d.

10. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 11, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

11. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 14, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger; Aktennotiz, 7, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

12. Land Bishop A.3873, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b. In fact, the piece was taken from the Flugblatt des Bundes für Deutsches Christentum. See Aktennotiz, 7, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

13. Aktennotiz, 8, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

14. Schäfer, , ed., Die evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg, 4: 311.

15. Aktennotiz, 5, 9, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

16. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.6046 to the District Superintendent's Office, Ravensburg, 18 June 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b; Aktennotiz, 4, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

17. Wurttemberg Superior Church Council A.6046 to the District Superintendent's Office, Ravensburg, 18 June 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b; Württemberg Superior Church Council A.7385 to the District Superintendent's Office, Ravensburg, 23 July 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b.

18. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.8473 to the District Superintendent's Office, Ravensburg, 23 August 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b; Aktennotiz, 4, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

19. Aktennotiz, 4, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

20. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.11644 to the District Superintendent's Office, Ravensburg, 22 November 1935, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg 53b; Aktennotiz, 4, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

21. On the place of Hauer and the German Faith Movement, please see Scholder, , Churches and the Third Reich, 1: 451–53.

22. Witetschek, Helmut, Die kirchliche huge in Bayern nach den Regierungspräsidentenberichten 1933–1943, Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern (Mainz: Matthias Grünewald, 1966), 1: 114–15.

23. Aktennotiz, 4, 8, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

24. Evangelisches Gemeindeblatt Friedrichshafen, April 1933, 3, Stadtarchiv Friedrichshafen.

25. Evangelisches Gemeindeblatt Friedrichshafen, June 1933, 2, Stadtarchiv Friedrichshafen.

26. Evangelisches Gemeindeblatt Friedrichshafen, November 1933, 3, Stadtarchiv Friedrichshafen.

27. Evangelisches Gemeindeblatt Friedrichshafen, July 1934, 4; February 1935, 3; April 1935, 2, Stadtarchiv Friedrichshafen; Jag, Karl Steger, 36, Stadtarchiv Friedrichshafen.

28. Wurttemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 12–13, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

29. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 12–13, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

30. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 12–13, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

31. Württemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 12–13, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger; Aktennotiz, 10, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

32. Wurttemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, 12–13, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger; Aktennotiz, 10, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

33. “Die Unterzeichneten bitten den Herrn Landesbischof …,” 02 1945, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger.

34. Friedrichshafen Parish Council to the Württemberg Superior Church Council, 27 12 1946, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/Friedrichshafen, Steger;Württemberg Superior Church Council A.13415 to the Württemberg Land Church Court of Complaint, 31 October 1947, Dekanatsarchiv Ravensburg Neue Akten/ Friedrichshafen, Steger.

35. Niesel, Wilhelm, Kirche unter dem Wort: Der Katnpf der Bekennenden Kirche der altpreuβischen Union 1933–1945 (Görhngen, 1978), 259.

36. “Aufstellung über Massnahmen gegen BK-Brüder, Kirchenkreis Nauen,” 11 September 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg NE 142/944.

37. Correspondence concerning these pastoral appointments is found in Evangelisches Zentralarchiv Berlin 7/12233, 14/10318, 14/10649 and 14/10770, as well as Domstiftsarchiv Brandenburg NE 69/741, 142/944 and 143/948.

38. Lists of Confessing Church members are found in NE 142/944.

39. “Entwurf eines Beschlusses über den Anschluβ an die Bekennende Kirche (BK),” 25 May 1937, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

40. The only other parishes within fifteen kilometers (by road) were Retzow, Pessin, and Nauen. In Retzow, Pastor Koch retired late in 1935, and the parish remained under the care of temporary clergymen until Walter Pachali's appointment in 1937. Pastor Rocha in Pessin, appointed in 1933 and dismissed in 1938, was a staunch member of the Confessing Church and no alternative for the Consistory to Pastor Posth. Nauen itself was constantly short-handed, from the time of Superintendent Graβhoff's illness in 1934 until the appointment of Friedrich Siems in 1937. With the death of Pastor Gerhard Schumann in July 1938, the Nauen parish was once again reduced to a single pastor, making it an unlikely source of a replacement for Posth in Ribbeck.

41. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26; Brandenburg Consistory to Posth of Berge, 14 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg NE 69/741.

42. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

43. Melanchthon, Philip, “The Confession of Faith: Which Was Submitted to His Imperial Majesty Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg in the Year 1530,” trans. Bente, F. and Dau, W. H. T., in Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Ev. Lutheran Church, (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1921), 3795;Luther, Martin, “Smalcald Articles,” trans. Bente, F. and Dau, W. H. T., in Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Ev. Lutheran Church, 453529.

44. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

45. Matthew 20:25–26 reads: “Jesus called them together and said, ‘You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant.’” (New International Version, NIV); Melanchthon, “Confession of Faith,” 37–95.

46. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

47. Martin Luther, “Smalcald Articles,” 453–529.

48. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

49. Philip Melanchthon, “The Confession of Faith,” 37–95.

50. Posth referred to Ezekiel 3:17, where God commissioned the prophet to be a watchman for the house of Israel, and to Article 28 of the Augsburg Confession, which affirmed the duty of clergymen to watch over the teaching of the church. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

51. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domsriftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

52. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

53. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

54. 1 Corinthians 2:14 states: “The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned” (NIV).

55. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

56. Article 28 of the Augsburg Confession asserts that ecclesiastical authority comes solely through the preaching of Scripture and the administration of sacraments and that the civil power has no authority to interpret Christian truth from the Word of God. For Posth, this served as a basis for defying the Brandenburg Consistory, whose teaching he regarded as heretical and whose authority was therefore void.

57. Herbert Posth, “Betr. Abgabe der Pfarrstelle Ribbeck,” 20 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 6/26.

58. Pastor Posth of Berge to Interim Superintendent Bettac in Beetz, 11 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg NE 69/741.

59. Pastor Posth of Berge to Interim Superintendent Bettac in Beetz, 11 October 1938, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg NE 69/741.

60. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Ribbeck Parish Treasure Behrendt, 30 May 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

61. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Interim Superintendent Bettac in Beetz, 28 May 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

62. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 19 June 1939 and 10 July 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

63. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 May 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

64. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

65. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

66. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

67. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

68. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

69. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 3005 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

70. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

71. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe in Ribbeck to Parish Treasurer Behrendt in Ribbeck, 30 05 1939; Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to Pastor Posth of Berge, 20 June 1939; Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory to the Governing President in Potsdam, 1 June 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

72. Pastor Posth of Berge to Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe, 5 09 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

73. Pastor Posth of Berge to Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe, 5 09 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

74. Pastor Posth of Berge to Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe, 5 09 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

75. Pastor Posth of Berge to Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe, 5 09 1939, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

76. Financial Plenipotentiary Hoppe to the Finance Department of the Brandenburg Consistory, 22 04 1940, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 5/11.

77. Brandenburg Confessing Church Council to Pastor Posth of Berge, 7 08 1940, Domstiftarchiv Brandenburg Ri 7/35.

78. Brandenburg Consistory to the Prussian Superior Church Council, 5 05 1938, Evangelisches Zenrralarchiv Berlin 7/12233.

79. Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 18 April 1934, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 815; Superintendent Zweynert to all clergymen in the Pirna district, 5 November 1934, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 815; Pastor Meier of Sebnitz to Superintendent Zweynert, 23 01 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 815.

80. Saxon Land Church Office to Superintendent Zweynert, 31 01 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

81. Amtshauptmannschaft Pirna to Superintendent Zweynert, 19 04 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 23 April 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

82. Superintendent Zweynert to Pastor Voigtländer of Maxen, 20 04 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Pastor Voigtlander to Superintendent Zweynert, 6 May 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 26 April 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to Pastor Werner of Dohna, 8 May 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

83. Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 8 05 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

84. Pastor Werner of Dohna to Superintendent Zweynert, 11 05 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

85. Pastor Werner of Dohna to Superintendent Zweynert, 15 05 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

86. Superintendent Zweynert to Pastor Klemm, 5 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

87. Superintendent Zweynert to Pastor Klemm, 5 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

88. Saxon Confessing Church council to Superintendent Zweynert, 7 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

89. Pastor Teichgräber of Pirna to Superintendent Zweynert, 9 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

90. Pastor Teichgräber of Pirna to Superintendent Zweynert, 9 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

91. Pastor Teichgräber of Pirna to Superintendent Zweynert, 9 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 11 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

92. Pastor Werner of Dohna to Superintendent Zweynert, 12 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

93. Pastor Werner of Dohna to Superintendent Zweynert, 18 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Pastor Werner to Confirmation Parents, 14 June 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Pastor Lieschke to Confirmation Parents, 17 June 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

94. Pastor Börner of Ottendorf to Pastor Werner of Dohna, 17 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

95. Pastor Börner of Ottendorf to Pastor Werner of Dohna, 17 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

96. Pastor Börner of Ottendorf to Pastor Werner of Dohna, 17 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

97. Pastor Werner to Superintendent Zweynert, 23 06 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Pastor Werner of Dohna to the Amtshauptmannschaft Pirna, 23 June 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

98. Pastor Werner of Donna to Superintendent Zweynert, 1 07 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

99. Pastor Werner of Dohna to Pastor Klemm of Burkhardswalde, 5 07 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Pastor Werner of Dohna to Superintendent Zweynert, 5 July 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

100. Mayor Schmidt of Weesenstein to Superintendent Zweynert, 10 July 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

101. Saxon land Church Office, “Beschluβ” [against Pastor Klemm], 30 07 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; land Church Office to Superintendent Zweynert 30 July 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

102. Superintendent Zweynert to Pastor Werner of Dohna, 30 08 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 3 09 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

103. Mayor Schmidt of Weesenstein to Superintendent Zweynert, 11 09 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

104. Weesenstein Parish Council to the Land Church Office, 31 08 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

105. Land Bishop Coch to Pastor Klemm, 23 10 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to Cantor Aehnelt, 7 November 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Land Church Committee to Pastor Klemm of Burkhardswalde, 16 December 1935 (twice), Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

106. Saxon Land Church Committee to Superintendent Zweynert, 18 01 1936, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Pastor Klemm of Burkhardswalde to the Land Church Committee, 20 January 1936, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

107. Superintendent Zweynert, Handwritten notes from Pastor Klemm's hearing with the Land Church Committee, n.d., Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

108. Land Church Committee to Superintendent Zweynert, 23 and 24 04 1936, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

109. Burkhardswalde NSDAP leader Heine to Superintendent Zweynert, 25 April 1936, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816; Superintendent Zweynert to Heine, 29 04 1936, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

110. Superintendent Zweynert to the Land Church Office, 3 09 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

111. Mayor Erich Schmidt of Weesenstein to Superintendent Zweynert, 11 09 1935, Ephoralarchiv Pirna 816.

112. See, for instance, the work of Gellately, Robert, The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990) and Gordon, Sarah, Hitler, Germans and the “Jewish Question” (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984)

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