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Johannes Matthiae and the Development of the Church of Sweden during the First Half of the Seventeenth Century

  • Martin E. Carlson (a1)

Extract

The seventeenth century was a period of tremendous currents and cross currents of theological thought and ecclesiastical development. There were scholasticism and pietism; orthodoxy and liberalism; intolerance and tolerance; confessionalism and syncretism; hierarchy against clergy; state interests and church interests. These vital currents of thought were not confined to the mainland of the Continent, but were to be found also in the development of Swedish ecclesiastical thought and life. Some men were carried on rapidly by the fast moving streams while others were dragged down into the whirlpool of the conflict of ideas and destroyed. Johannes Matthiae, the Comenius of Sweden, was one of those who were engulfed by the conflict and brought to ecclesiastical defeat.

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1 Wordsworth, John, The National Church of Sweden (Milwaukee: The Young Churchman Co., 1911), 259260

2 Westin, Gunnar, Negotiations about Church Unity, 1628–1634 (Uppsala: Almquist & Wiksells Boktryckeri—A.-B., 1932), 45.

3 Brilioth, Yngve, Svensk Tcyrkokunskap (Stockholm: Svenska Kyrkans Diakonistyrelses Bokfőrlag, 1933), 88

4 Holmdahl, Otto S., Studier őfver pr steståndets kyrkapolitik under den tidigare frihetstiden (Lund: Berlingska Boktryckerit, 1912), 128.

5 Brilioth, , Svensk Kyrkokunskap, 8586.

6 Ahnlund, Nils, Gustav Adolph the Great, trans. Roberts, Michael (Princeton: Princeton University Press; New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1940), 260.

7 Holmdahl, , Studier, 138139.

8 Wordsworth, , Church of Sweden, 284.

9 Ibid., 305.

10 Holmquist, Hjalmar, D. Johannes Matthiae Gothus (Uppsala: Almquist & Wiksells Boktryckeri—A.-B., 1903), 5963.

11 Wordsworth, , Church of Sweden, 277.

12 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 67.

13 Ibid., 78–79.

14 Ibid., 93n.

15 Ibid., 90–93.

16 Ibid., 95.

17 Ibid., 101.

18 Holmquist, Hjalmar, Svenska kyrkans historia (Stockholm: Svenska Kyrkans Diakonistyrelses Bokfőrlag, 1938), IV, i, 382.

19 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae Gothus, 112.

20 Ibid., 111–117.

21 Holmquist, , Svenska kyrkans historia, 383384.

22 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 128129.

23 Ibid., 130–131.

24 Ibid., 165.

25 Ibid., 180.

26 Ibid., 191.

27 Ibid., 198.

28 Matthiae, Johannes, Institutio catechetica. Quoted in Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 201.

29 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 201.

30 Matthiae, Johannes, Kyrkio och Husbook (Strengnas: Zacharia Brokenio, 1658), part III.

31 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 156.

32 Ibid., 182–183.

33 Ibid., 132.

34 Westin, Gunnar, “Syenska kyrkan och de protestantiska enhetsstr vandena under 1630-talet,” Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift, I (1934), 121.

35 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 149151.

36 Ibid, 208.

37 Westin, , “Svenska Kyrkan och de protestantiska enhetsstrvandena under 1630-talet,” 298.

38 Holmquist does not at all agree with Westin's evaluation of the importance of Dury's visit. He calls attention to the fact that the two men once met in the fall of 1636, but not again during the succeeding two years. Also that Matthiae opposed Dury's plan of union. He was sympathetic with his irenic spirit, but there is no record that he ever put in a good word for Dury. Both were interested in peace and tolerance, but their later correspondence was of no great significance. Cf. Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 208210. Westin's study is much later and, though he may overstate the importance of Dury's visit, has much to support his position.

39 Lindstrom, Joshua Oliver, “The Rise of Religious Toleration in Sweden” (unpublished M.A dissertation, University of Chicago, 1930), 1920.

40 Westin, , “Svenska kyrkan och de protestantiska enhetsstrvendana under 1630-talet,” 85. In view of later developments, one cannot but wonder if Dury read more into their words than they really meant. This seems to have been true of not a little of his correspondence from Sweden.

41 Batten, Joseph Minton, John Dury, Advocate of Christian Reunion, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1944), 69.

42 Hacklin, Anton, Olavus Laurelius, hans lif och verksamhet (1585–1670) (Luleå: Boktryckeri-Aktiebolag, 1896), 69.

43 For the main outline of Dury's visit to Sweden, cf. Batten, , John Dury, 6578.

44 Westin, , “Svenska Kyrkan och de protestantiska enhetsstrvandena under 1630-talet,” 291.

45 Ibid, 287.

46 Ibid, 302.

47 Hacklin, , Olavus Laurelius, 87.

48 “Johannes Matthiae” (Nordisk Familjebok), XIII, 42.

49 Holmquist, Hjalmar, “De Svenska domkapitlens Főrvandling till Lrarekapitel, 1571–1687” (Upsala Universitets Årsskrift, 1908), 121

50 Eklund, J. A., Andelivet in Sverges kyrka (Stockholm: Sverges Kristliga Studentrőrelses Főrlag, 1917), 197.

51 Spinka, Matthew, John Amos Comenius, that Incomparable Moravian (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1943), 9394.

52 Ibid., 107.

53 Lundstrom, Herman (ed), Kyrkohistorisk Årsskrift (1914), 456457. This contains a copy of the petition referred to.

54 Westin, , “Svenska Kyrkan och de protestantiska enhetsstrvandena under 1630-talet,” 311.

55 Eklund, , Andelivet, VI, 179183.

56 Lindstrom, , op cit, 34

57 “Johannes Matthiae” (Nordisk Familjebok), XIII, 42.

58 Wordsworth, , Church of Sweden, 303304.

59 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, note 91, p. 162.

60 Ibid., 72.

61 Ruffini, Francisco, Religious Liberty (trans, by Hayes, J. Parker) (New York: G P Putnam's Sons, 1912). 8283.

62 Holmquist, Hjalmar, Tväng, Tolerans, Samverkan (Lund: C.W.K. Gleerups Főrlag, 1929), 84.

63 Westin, , “Svenska Kyrkan och de protestantiska enhetsstrvandena under 1630-talet,” 312.

64 Ibid., 5

65 Holmquist, , D. Johannes Matthiae, 162.

66 Ibid., 216.

67 Ibid., 225–228.

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