Banks, J. A., Breeze, E., Lessof, C., & Nazroo, J. (2006). Retirement, health and relationships of the older population in England: The 2004 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Wave 2). London, ENG: The Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me sad: 5-year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive sympomatology in the Chicago health, ageing and social relations study. Psychology and Ageing, 25(2), 453–463.
Cacioppo, J. T., & Patrick, W. (2008). Loneliness: Human nature and the need for social connection. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
Carstensen, L. L. (1992). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 7(3), 331–338.
Chou, K., Cacioppo, J., Kumari, M., & Song, Y. Q. (2014). Influence of social environment on loneliness in older adults: Moderation by polymorphism in the CRHR1. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(5), 510–518.
De Jong Gierveld, J., & Havens, B. (2004). Cross-national comparisons of social isolation and loneliness: Introduction and overview. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 23(2), 109–113.
De Jong Gierveld, J., & van Tilburg, T. (2010). The De Jong Gierveld short scales for emotional and social loneliness: Tested on data from 7 countries in the UN generations and gender surveys. European Journal of Ageing, 7(2), 121–130.
Dykstra, P. A., & Fokkema, T. (2007). Social and emotional loneliness among divorced and married men and women: Comparing the deficit and cognitive perspectives. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(1), 1–12.
Dykstra, P., van Tilburg, T., & De Jong Gierveld, J. (2005). Changes in older adult loneliness. Research on Ageing, 27(6), 725–747.
Hawkley, L. C., Thisted, R. A., Masi, C. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness predicts increased blood pressure: 5-year cross-lagged analyses in middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 25(1), 132–141.
Heikkinen, R. L., & Kauppinen, M. (2011). Mental well-being: A 16-year follow-up among older residents in Jyväskylä. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 52(1), 33–39.
Heylen, L. (2010). The older, the lonelier? Risk factors for social loneliness in old age. Ageing & Society, 30(7), 1177–1196.
Holmen, K., & Furukawa, H. (2002). Loneliness, health and social network among elderly people: A follow-up study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 35(3), 261–271.
Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys. Research on Aging, 26, 655–672.
Jylhä, M. (2004). Old age and loneliness: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in the Tampere Longitudinal Study on Aging. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 23, 157–168.
Kahn, R. L., & Antonucci, T. C. (1980). Convoys over the life course: Attachment, roles, and social support. In Baltes, P. B. & Brim, O. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior, vol. 3 (pp. 254–283). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Korporaal, M., Marjolein, I., van Groenou, B., & van Tilburg, T. G. (2008). Effects of own and spousal disability on loneliness among older adults. Journal of Ageing and Health, 20, 306–325.
Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2015). IBM SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation (5th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Löckenhoff, C. E., & Carstensen, L. L. (2004). Socioemotional selectivity theory, aging, and health: The increasingly delicate balance between regulating emotions and making tough choices. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1395–1424.
Lykes, V. A., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2014). What predicts loneliness? Cultural differences between individualistic and collectivistic societies in Europe. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(3), 468–490.
Marmot, M., Banks, J. A., Blundell, R., Lessof, C., & Nazroo, J. (2003). Health, wealth and lifestyles of the older population in England: The 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. London, ENG: The Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Ong, A. D., Rothstein, J. D., & Uchino, B. (2012). Loneliness accentuates age differences in cardiovascular responses to social evaluative threat. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 190–198.
Perlman, D., & Peplau, L. A. (1981). Toward a social psychology of loneliness. In Gilmour, R. & Duck, S. (Eds.), Personal relationships: Personal relationships in disorder (pp. 31–56). London, ENG: Academic Press.
Pikhartova, J., Bowling, A., & Victor, C. (2016). Is loneliness in later life a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Ageing & Mental Health, 20(5), 543–549.
Prieto-Flores, M. E., Forjaz, M. J., Fernandez-Mayoralas, G., Rojo-Perez, F., & Martinez-Martin, P. (2011). Factors associated with loneliness of noninstitutionalized and institutionalized older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 23(1), 177–194.
Russell, D. (1996). UCLA loneliness scale (version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 20–40.
Russell, D., & Taylor, J. (2009). Living alone and depressive symptoms: The influence of gender, physical disability, and social support among Hispanic and non-Hispanic older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 64B, 95–104.
Scholes, S., Taylor, R., Cheshire, H., Cox, K., & Lessof, C. (2008). Retirement, health and relationships of the older population in England: The 2004 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Technical Report. London, ENG: National Centre for Social Research.
Shankar, A., Hamer, M., McMunn, A., & Steptoe, A. (2013). Social isolation and loneliness: Relationships with cognitive function during 4 years of follow-up in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(2), 161–170.
Shankar, A., McMunn, A., & Banks, J. (2011). Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology, 30(4), 377–385.
Shankar, A., Rafnsson, S. B., & Steptoe, A. (2015). Longitudinal associations between social connections and subjective wellbeing in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychology & Health, 30(6), 686–698.
Singer, J. B., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modelling change and event occurrence. Oxford, ENG: Oxford University Press.
Steptoe, A., Breeze, E., Banks, J., & Nazroo, J. (2013). Cohort profile: The English longitudinal study of ageing. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42, 1640–1648.
Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakakos, P., & Wardle, J. (2013). Social isolation, loneliness and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(15), 5797–5801.
Stevens, N., & Westerhof, G. J. (2006). Marriage, social integration, and loneliness in the second half of life: A comparison of Dutch and German men and women. Research on Aging, 28(6), 713–729.
Tijhuis, M. A. R., de Jong-Gierveld, J., & Feskens, E. J. M. (1999). Changes in and factors related to loneliness in older men. The Zutphen Elderly Study. Age and Ageing, 28(5), 491–495.
Victor, C., & Bowling, A. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of loneliness among older people in Great Britain. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 146(3), 313–331.
Victor, C. R., Scambler, S., & Bond, J. (2009). The social world of older people. Maidenhead, ENG: Open University Press.
Victor, C., & Yang, K. (2012). The prevalence of loneliness among adults: A case study of the United Kingdom. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 146(1–2), 85–104.
Wenger, G. C., & Burholt, V. (2004). Changes in levels of social isolation and loneliness among older people in a rural area: A twenty-year longitudinal study. Canadian Journal on Aging, 23, 115–127.
Yang, K., & Victor, C. (2011). Age and loneliness in 25 European nations. Ageing & Society, 31, 1–21.