Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Geochemical Risk Factors for Mental Functioning, Based on the Ontario Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA) V. Comparisons of the Results, relevant to Aluminum Water Concentrations, obtained from the LSA and from Death Certificates mentioning Dementia

  • W. F. Forbes (a1), S. Lessard (a1) and J. F. Gentleman (a1)

Abstract

Previous studies in this series of papers investigated the associations between aluminum (Al) water concentrations and relatively high risks of a measure of mental impairment and also various possible other drinking water characteristics, particularly pH, turbidity, fluoride and silica. The results were based on one measure of mental impairment, which would not be expected to give the same results as the more definitive endpoint (outcome variable) of a record of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as the underlying cause of death on a death certificate. The present paper therefore investigates the relevant associations, based both on the measure of mental impairment and on death certificates in which AD and presenile dementia are listed as the underlying causes of death. As expected, the associations were not identical, but they were similar. More specifically, Al water concentrations were strongly associated with the recording of AD on death certificates, as were pH, fluoride, and silica concentrations. The implications of these results are discussed, and it is suggested that the evidence is sufficiently strong for methods of water purification to be modified, at least on a trial basis, because of the likelihood that this will reduce the incidence of AD.

Les études publiées antérieurement dans le cadre de cette série d'articles visaient à examiner le rapport entre le risque relativement élevé mesuré par un indicateur de déficience mentale et la concentration d'aluminium dans l'eau potable, ainsi que d'autres propriétés de cette dernière, en particulier le pH, la turbidité et la concentration de fluorures et de silice. Ces études se fondaient sur une mesure de la déficience mentale qui, en principe, ne devrait pas donner les mêmes résultats qu'un fait mieux établi (consideré comme un résultat) qu'est la mention de la maladie d'Alzheimer comme cause sous-jacente du décès sur un certificat de décès. La présente étude vise done à examiner des liens pertinents en se fondant, d'une part, sur la mesure de la déficience mentale et, d'autre part, sur les certificats de décès faisant état de la maladie d'Alzheimer et de la démence présénile comme causes sous-jacentes du décès. Tel que prévu, ces liens different, mais sont cependant similaires. Plus précisément, on note une forte corrélation entre l'enregistrement de la maladie d'Alzheimer sur les certificats de décès et la concentration d'aluminium dans l'eau, ainsi que le pH et la concentration de fluorures et de silice. Les auteurs discutent de la portée des résultats et laissent entendre qu'on dispose de preuves suffisamment concluantes pour justifier, au moins à titre d'essai, la modification des méthodes de purification de l'eau, puisqu'il est probable qu'une telle mesure réduira l'incidence de la maladie d'Alzheimer.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Birchall, J.D. (1991). The role of silicon in aluminium toxicity. In Alzheimer's Disease and the Environment. Proceedings of an extended panel discussion held in London on 13–14 June. Royal Society of Medicine Services, Round Table Series (26, pp. 7077). Oxford: Alden Press.
Birchall, J.D. (1992). The interrelationship between silicon and aluminium in the biological effects of aluminium. In Aluminium in biology and medicine (pp. 5068). Chichester: Wiley (Ciba Foundation Symposium 169).
Breteler, M.M.B., Claus, J.J., van Duijn, C.M., Launer, L.J., & Hofman, A. (1992). Epidemiology of Alzheimer's Disease. Epidemiologic Reviews, 14, 5982.
Flaten, T.P. (1990). Geographical associations between aluminium in drinking water and death rates with dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Norway. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 12(1/2), 152167.
Forbes, W.F., & Agwani, N. (1994). Geochemical Risk Factors for Mental Functioning, Based on the Ontario Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA) III. The Effects of Different Aluminum-containing Compounds. Canadian Journal on Aging, 13(4): 488498.
Forbes, W.F., Agwani, N., & Lachmaniuk, P. (1995). Geochemical Risk Factors for Mental Functioning, Based on the Ontario Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA) IV. The Role of Silicon-containing Compounds. Canadian Journal on Aging, this issue.
Forbes, W.F., Gentleman, J.F., & Maxwell, C.J. (1995). Concerning the Role of Aluminum in Causing Dementia. Experimental Gerontology, 30(1): 2332.
Forbes, W.F., Hayward, L.M., & Agwani, N. (1992). Geochemical Risk Factors for Mental Functioning, Based on the Ontario Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA) I. Results from a Preliminary Investigation. Canadian Journal on Aging, 11(3), 269280.
Forbes, W.F., McAiney, C.A., Hayward, L.M., & Agwani, N. (1994). Geochemical Risk Factors for Mental Functioning, Based on the Ontario Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA) II. The Role of pH. Canadian Journal on Aging, 13(2), 249267.
Martyn, C.N., Osmond, C., Edwardson, J.A., Barker, D.J.P., Harris, E.C., & Lacey, R.F. (1989). Geographical relation between Alzheimer's disease and aluminium in drinking water. The Lancet, 59–62, January 14.
McLachlan, D.R.C. (1995). Aluminum and the Risk for Alzheimer's Disease. Environmetrics, 6(3): 233276.
McLachlan, D.R.C., Kruck, T.P., Lukiw, W.J., & Krishnan, S.S. (1991). Would decreased aluminum ingestion reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 145(1), 793804.
Mölsa, P.K., Martilla, R.J., & Rinne, U.K. (1984). Mortality of patients with dementia. Acta Neurologica Scandinauica, 69, 230231.
Neri, L.C., & Hewitt, D. (1991). Aluminum, Alzheimer's disease and drinking water. The Lancet, 338, 390.
Still, C.N., & Kelly, P. (1980). On the incidence of primary degenerative dementia vs. water fluoride content in South Carolina. Neurotoxicology, 1, 125132.
Wettstein, A., Aeppli, J., Gautschi, K., & Peters, M. (1991). Failure to find a relationship between mnestic skills of octogenarians and aluminum in drinking water. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 63, 97102.
Wood, D.J., Cooper, C., Stevens, J., & Edwardson, J. (1988). Bone mass and dementia in hip fracture patients from areas with different aluminum concentrations in water supplies. Age and Ageing, 17, 414419.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed