Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Whiteness, Power and the Politics of Demographics in the Governance of the Canadian Academy

  • Genevieve Fuji Johnson (a1) and Robert Howsam (a1)

Abstract

The predominance of Whiteness, and the corresponding lack of representation of people who are both racialized and minoritized, in the governance of universities is a political issue. We present the results from an intersectional diversity audit of central and senior academic administrators at five Canadian universities: Simon Fraser University, University of British Columbia, University of Toronto, University of Victoria and York University. Our findings indicate that racialized men and women are hitting ceilings in the middle administrative ranks. Conversely, we find a notable overrepresentation of White men and women in the senior administrative ranks. Our analysis suggests that White women, unlike racialized women and men, no longer face serious barriers to representation within these senior ranks. These findings raise concerns about processes of racialization that may impede career progress for some but accelerate it for others. They raise concerns about the politics of who lifts whom into the echelons of academic decision making, which in turn has implications for justice, knowledge and social meanings of competency.

Résumé

La prédominance de la race blanche et le manque correspondant de représentation des personnes à la fois racialisées et minorisées dans la gouvernance des universités est un enjeu politique. Nous présentons les résultats d'un audit sur la diversité intersectionnelle des administrateurs centraux et supérieurs de cinq universités canadiennes : SFU, UBC, UVic, Toronto et York. Nos conclusions indiquent que les hommes et les femmes racialisés atteignent des plafonds dans les rangs administratifs moyens. À l'inverse, nous constatons une surreprésentation notable des hommes et des femmes blancs dans les rangs administratifs supérieurs. Notre analyse suggère que les femmes blanches, contrairement aux femmes et aux hommes racialisés, ne sont plus confrontées à de sérieux obstacles à la représentation dans ces postes de haut niveau. Ces résultats soulèvent des inquiétudes quant aux processus de racialisation qui peuvent entraver la progression de carrière pour certains mais l'accélérer pour d'autres. Elles soulèvent des préoccupations quant à la politique de qui élève qui aux échelons de la prise de décision universitaire, ce qui a des implications pour la justice, la connaissance et les significations sociales de la compétence.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Whiteness, Power and the Politics of Demographics in the Governance of the Canadian Academy
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Whiteness, Power and the Politics of Demographics in the Governance of the Canadian Academy
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Whiteness, Power and the Politics of Demographics in the Governance of the Canadian Academy
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: gfjohnso@sfu.ca

References

Hide All
Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, Everitt, Joanna, Johnston, Richard, Papillon, Martin and Rayside, David. 2012. Report and Analysis of the Canadian Political Science Association Member Survey. Canadian Political Science Association, Diversity Task Force. https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/documents/pdfs/diversity/2012_Diversity_Task_Force_Report.pdf.
Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, Everitt, Joanna, Johnston, Richard and Rayside, David. 2010. Report and Analysis of the Questionnaire for Chairs of Departments of Political Science. Canadian Political Science Association, Diversity Task Force. https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/documents/pdfs/diversity/2010_Diversity_Task_Force%E2%80%93Chairs_of_Departments_of_Political_Science-Report.pdf.
Advance, HE. n.d. “Athena SWAN Charter.” Equality Challenge Unit. https://www.ecu.ac.uk/equality-charters/athena-swan/ (October 19, 2019).
Ahmed, Sara. 2012. On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham: Duke University Press.
al Shaibah, Arig. 2014. Education Equity in Canadian Academe: Implications of Neoliberal Discourse and Ideology. Doctoral dissertation. Queen's University. Kingston, Ontario.
Bates, Lauren, Roche, Brenda, Cheff, Rebecca, Hill, Malaika and Aery, Anjana. 2017. Socio-demographic Data and Equity in Health Services in Ontario: Building on Strong Foundations. Toronto: Wellesley Institute. https://www.wellesleyinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Collecting-Socio-demographic-Data.pdf.
Bellas, Marcia L. and Toutkoushian, Robert K.. 1999. “Faculty Time Allocations and Research Productivity.” Review of Higher Education 22 (4): 366–85.
Bloomberg. n.d. “About the Index.” Bloomberg Gender-Equality Index. https://www.bloomberg.com/gei/about/ (October 18, 2019).
Boodram, Annette. 2018. 2017 Annual Employment Equity Statistical Report. Toronto: Equity, Diversity & Inclusion, York University.
Brown, Laurence. 2016. “Vertical and Horizontal Approaches to the Making of Racial Statistics in Britain.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 39 (10): 1812–30.
Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
Callahan, Jennifer L., Smotherman, Jessie M., Dziurzynski, Kristin E., Love, Patrick K., Kilmer, Elizabeth D., Niemann, Yolanda Flores and Ruggero, Camilo J.. 2018. “Diversity in the Professional Psychology Training-to-Workforce Pipeline: Results from Doctoral Psychology Student Population Data .” Training and Education in Professional Psychology 12 (4): 273–85.
CAUT (Canadian Association of University Teachers). 2018. Underrepresented & Underpaid: Diversity & Equity Among Canada's Post-Secondary Education Teachers. Canadian Association of University Teachers.
Chan, Adrienne S., Dhamoon, Rita Kaur and Moy, Lisa. 2014. “Metaphoric Representations of Women of Colour in the Academy: Teaching Race, Disrupting Power.” Borderlands 13 (2): 126.
Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43 (6): 12411300.
Curtis, John W. 2011. Persistent Inequity: Gender and Academic Employment. April 11. American Association of University Professors. http://www.aaup.org/NR/rdonlyres/08E023AB-E6D8-4DBD-99A0-24E5EB73A760/0/persistent_inequity.pdf.
Deem, Rosemary and Louise, Morley. 2006. “Diversity in the Academy? Staff Perceptions of Equality Policies in Six Contemporary Higher Education Institutions.” Policy Futures in Education 4 (2): 185202.
Dhir, Aaron. 2015. Challenging Boardroom Homogeneity: Corporate Law, Governance, and Diversity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Douglas, Delia D. 2012. “Black/Out: The White Face of Multiculturalism and the Violence of the Canadian Academic Imperial Project.” In Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia, ed. Gutierrez, Gabriella y Muhs, , Niemann, Yolanda Flores, González, Carmen G. and Harris, Angela P.. Logan: Utah State University Press.
Employment Equity Act. 1995. Employment Equity Act., S.C. 1995, c. 44. Canada. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/E-5.401/page-1.html#h-215135.
Foucault, Michel. 1985. The Use of Pleasure, trans. Robert Hurley. Vol. 2 of The History of Sexuality. New York: Pantheon Books.
Gaudry, Adam and Lorenz, Danielle. 2018. “Indigenization as Inclusion, Reconciliation, and Decolonization: Navigating the Different Visions for Indigenizing the Canadian Academy.” AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 14 (3): 218–27.
Griffith, Andrew. 2016 “Diversity among Federal and Provincial Judges.” Policy Options, May 4. https://policyoptions.irpp.org/2016/05/04/diversity-among-federal-provincial-judges/ (February 14, 2020).
Ham, David. 2019. Distribution of Faculty by Rank and Year. Burnaby: Institutional Research and Planning, Simon Fraser University.
Hames-García, Michael. 2010. “Is Diversity without Social Justice Enough?” In The Future of Diversity: Academic Leaders Reflect on American Higher Education, ed. Little, Daniel and Mohanty, Satya P.. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.
Harris, Angela P. and González, Carmen G.. 2012. “Introduction.” In Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia, ed. Gutierrez, Gabriella y Muhs, , Niemann, Yolanda Flores, González, Carmen G. and Harris, Angela P.. Logan: Utah State University Press.
Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, Kobayashi, Audrey, James, Carl, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. 2017. “Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities.” Race Ethnicity and Education 20 (3): 300314.
Henry, Frances and Kobayashi, Audrey, with Choi, Andrea. 2017a. “Representational Analysis: Comparing Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Henry, Frances and Kobayashi, Audrey, with Choi, Andrea. 2017b. “The Everyday World of Racialized and Indigenous Faculty.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Henry, Frances and Tator, Carol. 2012. “Interviews with Racialized Faculty Members in Canadian Universities.” Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada 44 (2): 7599.
HESA (Higher Education Statistics Agency). 2018. “Higher Education Staff Statistics: UK, 2016/17.” January 18. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/news/18-01-2018/sfr248-higher-education-staff-statistics.
Hirshfield, Laura E. and Joseph, Tiffany D.. 2012. “‘We Need a Woman, We Need a Black Woman’: Gender, Race, and Identity Taxation in the Academy.” Gender and Education 24 (2): 213–27.
Institutional Research and Planning. Simon Fraser University. n.d. “Faculty/Staff.” http://www.sfu.ca/irp/faculty-staff.html (October 19, 2019).
James, Carl E., with Chapman-Neyaho, Selom. 2017. “‘Would Never Be Hired These Days’: The Precarious Work Situation of Racialized and Indigenous Faculty Members.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard, and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Lorber, Judith. 2018. “The Social Construction of Gender.” In The Inequality Reader: Contemporary and Foundational Readings in Race, Class, and Gender, ed. Grusky, David. New York: Routledge.
Mahtani, Minelle. 2004. “Mapping Race and Gender in the Academy: The Experiences of Women of Colour Faculty and Graduate Students in Britain, the US and Canada.” Journal of Geography in Higher Education 28 (1): 9199.
Malik, Aqdas, Johri, Aditya, Handa, Rajat, Karbasian, Habib and Purohit, Hermant. 2018. “#ILookLikeAnEngineer: Using Social Media Based Hashtag Activism Campaigns as a Lens to Better Understand Engineering Diversity Issues.” 2018 CoNECD—The Collaborative Network for Engineering and Computing Diversity Conference: Crystal City, Virginia.
Mansbridge, Jane. 1999. “Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes.’Journal of Politics 61 (3): 628–57.
Melloni, Gaia, Caglio, Ariela and Perego, Paolo. 2017. “Saying More with Less? Disclosure Conciseness, Completeness and Balance in Integrated Reports.” Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 36 (3): 220–38.
Mohanty, Satya. 1989. “Us and Them: On the Philosophical Bases of Political Criticism.” The Yale Journal of Criticism 2 (2): 1.
Momani, Bessma, Dreher, Emma and Williams, Kira. 2019. “More than a Pipeline Problem: Evaluating the Gender Pay Gap in Canadian Academia from 1996 to 2016.” Canadian Journal of Higher Education 49 (1): 121.
Monforti, Jessica Lavariega. 2012. “La Lucha: Latinas Surviving Political Science.” In Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia, ed. Gutierrez, Gabriella y Muhs, , Niemann, Yolanda Flores, González, Carmen G. and Harris, Angela P.. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.
Mowatt, Rasul A., Johnson, Corey W., Roberts, Nina S. and Kivel, Dana B.. 2016. “‘Embarrassingly White’: Faculty Racial Disparities in American Recreation, Park, and Tourism Programs.” Schole: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education 31 (1): 3755.
Muhs, Gabriella Gutierrez y, Niemann, Yolanda Flores, González, Carmen G. and Harris, Angela P., eds. 2012. Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.
Nakanishi, Don T. 1993. “Asian Pacific Americans in Higher Education: Faculty and Administrative Representation and Tenure.” New Directions for Teaching and Learning 53: 5159.
Nakhaie, Reza M. 2004. “Who Controls Canadian Universities? Ethnoracial Origins of Canadian University Administrators and Faculty's Perception of Mistreatment.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 36 (1): 92110.
NCES (National Center for Educational Statistics). n.d. “Components.” National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/nsopf/components.asp (October 20, 2019).
Nielsen, Joyce McCarl, Marschke, Robyn, Sheff, Elisabeth and Rankin, Patricia. 2005. “Vital Variables and Gender Equity in Academe: Confessions from a Feminist Empiricist Project.” Signs 31 (1): 128.
Nieuwenhuis, Rense, Need, Ariana and van der Kolk, Henk. 2012. “Institutional and Demographic Explanations of Women's Employment in 18 OECD Countries, 1975–1999.” Journal of Marriage and Family 74 (3): 614–30.
Omi, Michael and Winant, Howard. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York: Routledge.
Ontario Human Rights Commission. 2005. Policy and Guidelines on Racism and Racial Discrimination. Toronto: Ontario Human Rights Commission.
Ornstein, Michael, Stewart, Penni and Drakich, Janice. 2007. “Promotion at Canadian Universities: The Intersection of Gender, Discipline, and Institution.” Canadian Journal of Higher Education 37 (3): 125.
Padilla, Amado M. 1994. “Ethnic Minority Scholars, Research, and Mentoring: Current and Future Issues.” Educational Researcher 23 (4): 2427.
Pascale, Celine-Marie. 2006. Making Sense of Race, Class, and Gender: Commonsense, Power, and Privilege in the United States. New York: Routledge.
Phillips, Anne. 1991. Engendering Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Phillips, Anne. 1998. “Democracy and Representation: Or, Why Should It Matter Who Our Representatives Are?” In Feminism and Politics, ed. Phillips, Anne. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Potvin, Maryse. 2005. “The Role of Statistics on Ethnic Origin and ‘Race’ in Canadian Anti-Discrimination Policy.” International Social Science Journal 57 (183): 2742.
Prewitt, Kenneth. 2013. What Is Your Race? The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ramos, Howard. 2012. “Does How You Measure Representation Matter? Assessing the Persistence of Canadian Universities’ Gendered and Colour Coded Vertical Mosaic.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 44 (2): 1337.
Ramos, Howard, and Li, Peter S.. 2017. “Differences in Representation and Employment Income of Racialized University Professors in Canada.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Ramos, Howard and Wijesingha, Rochelle. 2017. “Academic Production, Reward, and Perceptions of Racialized Faculty Members.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Rubin, Gayle. 1984. “Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality.” Social Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies; A Reader, ed. Nardi, Peter M. and Schneider, Beth E.. New York: Routledge.
Settles, Isis H., Buchanan, Nicole T. and Dotson, Kristie. 2019. “Scrutinized but Not Recognized: (In)visibility and Hypervisibility Experiences of Faculty of Color.” Journal of Vocational Behaviour 113: 6274.
Smith, Malinda S. 2016. “The Diversity Gap in University Leadership.” Academic Women's Association University of Alberta. https://uofaawa.wordpress.com/awa-diversity-gap-campaign/the-diversity-gap-in-university-leadership/ (October 18, 2019).
Smith, Malinda S. 2017a. “Disciplinary Silences: Race, Indigeneity, and Gender in the Social Sciences.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Smith, Malinda S. 2017b. “A Dirty Dozen: Unconscious Race and Gender Biases in the Academy.” In The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities, ed. Henry, Frances, Dua, Enakshi, James, Carl, Kobayashi, Audrey, Li, Peter S., Ramos, Howard and Smith, Malinda S.. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Smith, Malinda S. 2017c: “Action Needed to Close the Leadership Diversity Gap at Canadian Universities.” April 27. Academic Women's Association, University of Alberta, Edmonton. https://uofaawa.wordpress.com/awa-diversity-gap-campaign/the-diversity-gap-in-university-leadership-2017/ (February 14, 2020).
Smith, Malinda S. 2018. “Leadership Diversity Matters at Canada's U15 Research-Intensive Universities.” February 16. Academic Women's Association, University of Alberta, Edmonton. https://uofaawa.wordpress.com/awa-diversity-gap-campaign/the-diversity-gap-in-university-leadership-2018/ (February 16,2019).
Smith, Malinda S. 2019. “U15 Leadership Remains Largely White and Male Despite 33 Years of Equity Initiatives.” June 20. Academic Women's Association, University of Alberta, Edmonton. https://uofaawa.wordpress.com/2019/06/20/u15-leadership-remains-largely-white-and-male-despite-33-years-of-equity-initiatives/.
Statistics Canada. Table 98-400-X2016287, “Labour Force Status, Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree, Aboriginal Identity, Age, and Sex for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households.”
Statistics Canada. Table 98-400-X2016192, “Visible Minority, Age, Sex and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics for the Population in Private Households.”
Statistics Canada. Table 98-400-X2016356, “Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016, Employment Income Statistics, Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree, Visible Minority, Work Activity During the Reference Year, Age and Sex for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over Who Worked in 2015 and Reported Employment Income in 2015, in Private Households.”
Statistics Canada. Table 98-400-X2016357, “Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016, Employment Income Statistics, Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree, Aboriginal Identity, Work Activity During the Reference Year, Age and Sex for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over Who Worked in 2015 and Reported Employment Income in 2015, in Private Households.”
Stewart, Abigail J. and Valian, Virginia. 2018. An Inclusive Academy: Achieving Diversity and Excellence. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Stolowy, Hervé and Paugam, Luc. 2018. “The Expansion of Non-Financial Reporting: An Exploratory Study.” Accounting and Business Research 48 (5): 525–48.
Thomas, Rachel, Cooper, Marianne, Konar, Ellen, Bohrer, Ali, Mohsenin, Ava, Yee, Lareina, Krivkovich, Alexis, Starikova, Irina, Huang, Jess and Zanoschi, Delia. 2019. Women in the Workplace 2019. McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.Org.
Thompson, Debra. 2008. “Is Race Political?Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 41 (3): 525–47.
Thompson, Debra. 2014. “The Comparative Study of Race: Census Politics in Canada, the United States and Great Britain.” In Comparing Canada: Methods and Perspectives on Canadian Politics, ed. Papillon, Martin, Turgeon, Luc, Wallner, Jennifer and White, Stephen. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Thompson, Debra. 2015. “What Lies Beneath: Equality and the Making of Racial Classifications.” Social Philosophy and Policy 3b1 (2): 114–36.
Thompson, Debra. 2016. The Schematic State: Race, Transnationalism, and the Politics of the Census. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Turner, , Caroline Sotello Viernes, . 2002. Diversifying the Faculty: A Guidebook for Search Committees. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Universities Canada. 2019. Equity, Diversity and Inclusion at Canadian Universities: Report on the 2019 National Survey. https://www.univcan.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Equity-diversity-and-inclusion-at-Canadian-universities-report-on-the-2019-national-survey-Nov-2019-1.pdf
University of British Columbia. 2016. “Employment Equity Report 2016.” University of British Columbia. https://equity3.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2018/07/Employment-Equity-Report-2016-Final-April.pdf.
University of Toronto. 2016. “Gender Equity and Pathways to Leadership: Women in the Tenure Stream at the University of Toronto (2004–05 and 2014–15).” Toronto: University of Toronto.
University of Toronto. 2018. “Report on Employment Equity 2017/2018.” Toronto: Office of the Vice-President, Human Resources & Equity, University of Toronto.
University of Victoria. n.d. “Employment Equity Survey—University of Victoria.” Equity and Human Rights. https://www.uvic.ca/equity/employment-equity/equitysurvey/index.php#snapshot (October 20, 2019).
Weinberg, Sharon L. 2008. “Monitoring Faculty Diversity: The Need for a More Granular Approach.” Journal of Higher Education 79 (4): 365–87.
Young, Iris Marion. 2002. “Representation and Social Representation.” In Inclusion and Democracy, 121–53. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zambrana, Ruth E. 2018. Toxic Ivory Towers: The Consequences of Work Stress on Underrepresented Minority Faculty. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Keywords

Whiteness, Power and the Politics of Demographics in the Governance of the Canadian Academy

  • Genevieve Fuji Johnson (a1) and Robert Howsam (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.