Published online by Cambridge University Press: 10 November 2009
When might high ethnic mobilization co-exist with social pluralism? The article addresses this question by comparing four of India's major ethnic movements/parties. “Organizational pluralism” denotes flexibility and autonomy in party-society and intra-party transactions. Pluralism within influential political organizations aids social pluralism. High levels of organizational pluralism led Dravidianism to aid social pluralism; comparatively low levels led Hindu revivalist and Sikh organizations to ignore incentives to adopt more inclusive strategies. States willing and able to foster tolerance will emerge amidst high ethnic mobilization only if activists promote pluralism within major ethnic organizations.
Un haut niveau de mobilisation ethnique peut-il co-exister avec le pluralisme social, et dans quelles conditions? Cet article répond à cette question par la comparaison de quatre des principaux mouvements/partis ethniques de I'lnde. Le « pluralisme organisationnel » dénote l'existence d'un certain degré de flexibilité et d'autonomie dans les relations internes des partis et dans les rapports qu'ils entretiennent avec la société. Le pluralisme des organisations politiques influentes est un facteur de promotion du pluralisme social. Ainsi, un haut niveau de pluralisme organisationnel a permis au dravidianisme de contribuer au pluralisme social; à l'inverse, un niveau relativement bas de pluralisme organisationnel a conduit les organisations sikh et celles du « renouveau hindou » à ignorer les incitations à l'adoption de stratégies politiques plus conciliantes. L'émergence d'États capables et désireux de promouvoir la tolérance ne sera possible, dans un contexte de mobilisation ethnique élevée, que si les militants promouvoient le pluralisme au sein des principals organisations ethniques.
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12 Support for the Muslim Conference, which alone favoured amalgamation with Pakistan, was concentrated in Azad Kashmir (the portion occupied by Pakistan) after 1948.
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31 The conclusions regarding voter alignments and variations in local mobilization are based on the ecological analysis of election results and case studies of mobilization and competition in five representative state legislative assembly constituencies.
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33 MGR was a non-Brahmin Malayaii and thus within the scope of the broader definition of the Dravidian as a non-Brahmin South Indian, but this construction of ethnicity did not find broad acceptance.
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