Gilbert, JN, Jones, KL, Rorke, LB, Chernoff, GF, James, HE.
Central nervous system anomalies associated with meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, and the Arnold-Chiari malformation: reappraisal of theories regarding the pathogenesis of posterior neural tube closure defects. Neurosurgery. 1986;18:559–64.
Salman, MS, Blaser, SE, Sharpe, JA, Dennis, M.
Cerebellar vermis morphology in children with spina bifida and Chiari type II malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:385–93.
Sutton, LN, Adzick, NS, Bilaniuk, LT, Johnson, MP, Crombleholme, TM, Flake, AW.
Improvement in hindbrain herniation demonstrated by serial fetal magnetic resonance imaging following fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. JAMA. 1999;282:1826–31.
Wagner, W, Schwarz, M, Perneczky, A.
Primary myelomeningocele closure and consequences. Curr Opin Urol. 2002;12:465–8.
Scudder, CA, Batourina, EY, Tunder, GS.
Comparison of two methods of producing adaptation of saccade size and implications for the site of plasticity. J Neurophysiol. 1998;79:704–15.
Barash, S, Melikyan, A, Sivakov, A, Zhang, M, Glickstein, M, Thier, P.
Saccadic dysmetria and adaptation after lesions of the cerebellar cortex. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10931–9.
Scudder, CA, McGee, DM.
Adaptive modification of saccade size produces correlated changes in the discharges of fastigial nucleus neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:1011–26.
Desmurget, M, Pelisson, D, Urquizar, C, Prablanc, C, Alexander, GE, Grafton, ST.
Functional anatomy of saccadic adaptation in humans. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:524–8.
Straube, A, Fuchs, AF, Usher, S, Robinson, FR.
Characteristics of saccadic gain adaptation in rhesus macaques. J Neurophysiol. 1997;77:874–95.
Waespe, W, Baumgartner, R.
Enduring dysmetria and impaired gain adaptivity of saccade eye movements in Wallenberg’s lateral medullary syndrome. Brain. 1992;115:1125–46.
Dennis, M, Edelstein, K, Hetherington, R, Copeland, K, Frederick, J, Blaser, SE, et al.
Neurobiology of perceptual and motor timing in children with spina bifida in relation to cerebellar volume. Brain. 2004;127:1–10.
Thier, P, Dicke, PW, Haas, R, Barash, S.
Encoding of movement time by populations of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Nature. 2000;405:72–6.
Thier, P, Dicke, PW, Haas, R, Thielert, CD, Catz, N.
The role of the oculomotor vermis in the control of saccadic eye movements. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002;978:50–62.
Parametric adjustment in saccadic eye movements. Percept Psychophys. 1967;2:359–62.
Schweighofer, N, Arbib, MA, Dominey, PF.
A model of the cerebellum in adaptive control of saccadic gain. I. The model and its biological substrate. Biol Cybern. 1996;75:19–28.
Albano, JE, King, WM.
Rapid adaptation of saccadic amplitude in humans and monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989;30:1883–93.
Separate adaptive mechanisms for the control of reactive and volitional saccadic eye movements. Vision Res. 1995;35:3529–40.
Salman, MS, Sharpe, JA, Eizenman, M, Lillakas, L, To, T, Westall, C, et al. Saccadic adaptation in children. J Child Neurol. (in press).
Salman, MS, Sharpe, JA, Eizenman, M, Lillakas, L, To, T, Westall, C, et al.
Saccades in Children with Chiari type II malformation. Neurology. 2005;64:2098–101.
Dennis, M, Fletcher, JM, Rogers, T, Hetherington, R, Francis, DJ.
Object-based and action-based visual perception in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2002;8:95–106.
Van Allen, MI, Kalousek, DK, Chernoff, GF, Juriloff, D, Harris, M, McGillivray, BC, et al.
Evidence for multi-site closure of the neural tube in humans. Am J Med Genet. 1993;47:723–43.
Fletcher, JM, Dennis, M, Northrup, H, Barnes, MA, Hannay, HJ, Landry, SH, et al.
Spina bifida: genes, brain, and development. Int Rev Res Ment Retard. 2004;29:63–117.
Neuropsychological functioning in children with spina bifida and/ or hydrocephalus. J Clin Child Psychol. 1993;22: 247–65.
Dennis, M, Fitz, CR, Netley, CT, Sugar, J, Harwood-Nash, DC, Hendrick, EB, et al.
The intelligence of hydrocephalic children. Arch Neurol. 1981;38:607–15.
The Casey Holter lecture. Non-selective intervention in newborn babies with open spina bifida: the outcome 30 years on for the complete cohort. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 1999;9
Mazur, JM, Aylward, GP, Colliver, J, Stacey, J, Menelaus, M.
Impaired mental capabilities and hand function in myelomeningocele patients. Z Kinderchir. 1988;43
Suppl 2 :S24–7.
DiScenna, AO, Das, VE, Zivotofsky, AZ, Seidman, SH, Leigh, RJ.
Evaluation of a video tracking device for measurement of horizontal and vertical eye rotations during locomotion. J Neurosci Meth. 1995;58:89–94.
SPSS Inc. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) for windows:
Chicago, IL, 2001.
Practical statistics for medical research. London; New York: Chapman and Hall; 1995.
Hopp, JJ, Fuchs, AF.
Investigating the site of human saccadic adaptation with express and targeting saccades. Exp Brain Res. 2002;144:538–48.
Mezey, LE, Harris, CM.
Adaptive control of saccades in children with dancing eye syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002;956:449–52.
Role of the cerebellum in movement control and adaptation. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1995;5:755–62.
Straube, A, Deubel, H, Ditterich, J, Eggert, T.
Cerebellar lesions impair rapid saccade amplitude adaptation. Neurology. 2001;57:2105–8.
Dennis, M, Edelstein, K, Frederick, J, Copeland, K, Francis, DJ, Blaser, SE, et al.
Peripersonal spatial attention in children with spina bifida: Associations between horizontal and vertical line bisection and congenital malformations of the corpus callosum, midbrain, and posterior cortex. Neuropsychologia. 2005; 43:2000–10.
Hashimoto, M, Ohtsuka, K.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation over the posterior cerebellum during visually guided saccades in man. Brain. 1995;118:1185–93.
Robinson, FR, Fuchs, AF, Noto, CT.
Cerebellar influences on saccade plasticity. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002;956:155–63.
Coesmans, M, Smitt, PA, Linden, DJ, Shigemoto, R, Hirano, T, Yamakawa, Y, et al.
Mechanisms underlying cerebellar motor deficits due to mGluR1-autoantibodies. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:325–36.
Huber-Okrainec, J, Dennis, M, Brettschneider, J, Spiegler, BJ.
Neuromotor speech deficits in children and adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Brain Lang. 2002;80:592–602.
Colvin, AN, Yeates, KO, Enrile, BG, Coury, DL.
Motor adaptation in children with myelomeningocele: comparison to children with ADHD and healthy siblings. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2003;9:642–52.
Edelstein, K, Dennis, M, Copeland, K, Frederick, J, Francis, DJ, Hetherington, CR, et al.
Motor learning in children with spina bifida: Dissociation between performance level and acquisition rate. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10:1–11.