Nicoll, A, Gill, ON.
The global impact of HIV infection and disease. Commun Dis Public Health
Viral Infections of the Nervous System. 2nd Ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998.
Power, C, Johnson, RT.
HIV-1 associated dementia: clinical featuresand pathogenesis. Can J Neurol Sci
Neurologic manifestations of AIDS. Medicine(Baltimore)
McArthur, JC, Hoover, DR, Bacellar, H, et al.
Dementia in AIDSpatients: incidence and risk factors. Multicenter AIDS CohortStudy. Neurology
White, DA, Heaton, RK, Monsch, AU.
Neuropsychological studiesof asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus- type-1 infected individuals. The HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. J Int Neuropsychol Soc
Nomenclature and research case definitions forneurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virustype 1 (HIV-1) infection. Report of a Working Group of the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. Neurology
Navia, BA, Jordan, BD, Price, RW.
The AIDS dementia complex: I.Clinical features. Ann Neurol
Mirsattari, SM, Power, C, Nath, A.
Parkinsonism with HIV infection. Mov Disord
Maher, J, Choudhri, S, Halliday, W, et al.
AIDS dementia complexwith generalized myoclonus. Mov Disord
Childs, EA, Lyles, RH, Selnes, OA, et al.
Plasma viral load and CD4lymphocytes predict HIV-associated dementia and sensoryneuropathy. Neurology
Sacktor, N, Lyles, RH, Skolasky, R, et al.
HIV-associated neurologicdisease incidence changes: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990–1998. Neurology
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyland thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Dana Consortium on the Therapy of HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. Neurology
Ellis, RJ, Deutsch, R, Heaton, RK, et al.
Neurocognitive impairmentis an independent risk factor for death in HIV infection. San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group. ArchNeurol
Simpson, DM, Tagliati, M.
Neurologic manifestations of HIV infection [published erratum appears in Ann Intern Med 1995 Feb 15;122(4):317]. Ann Intern Med
Dal Pan, GJ, McArthur, JH, Aylward, E, et al.
Patterns of cerebralatrophy in HIV-1-infected individuals: results of a quantitativeMRI analysis. Neurology
Chang, L, Ernst, T, Leonido-Yee, M, et al.
Cerebral metaboliteabnormalities correlate with clinical severity of HIV-1 cognitive motor complex. Neurology
Navia, BA, Cho, ES, Petito, CK, et al.
The AIDS dementia complex: II. Neuropathology. Ann Neurol
Pathology of HIV-1 infection of the central nervoussystem. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol
Vinters, HA, Anders, KH.
Neuropathology of AIDS. CRC Press, Inc.
Boca Raton, Florida, 1990.
Glass, M, Faull, RL, Bullock, JY, et al.
Loss of A1 adenosinereceptors in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain Res
Sharer, LR, Epstein, LG, Cho, ES, et al.
Pathologic features of AIDSencephalopathy in children:evidence for LAV/HTLV-IIIinfection of brain. Hum Pathol
Petito, CK, Cash, KS.
Blood-brain barrier abnormalities in theacquired immunodeficiency syndrome: immunohistochemical localization of serum proteins in postmortem brain. Ann Neurol
Power, C, Kong, PA, Crawford, TO, et al.
Cerebral white matterchanges in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia: alterations of the blood-brain barrier. Ann Neurol
Shi, BD, De Girolami, U, He, J; et al, Apoptosis induced by HIV-1infection of the central nervous system. J Clin Invest
Glass, JD, Fedor, H, Wesselingh, SL, et al.
Immunocytochemical quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus in the brain: correlations with dementia. Ann Neurol
Rostasy, K, Monti, L, Yiannoutsos, C, et al.
NFkappaB activation, TNF-alpha expression, and apoptosis in the AIDS- Dementia-Complex. J Neurovirol
Achim, CL, Heyes, MP, Wiley, CA.
Quantitation of humanimmunodeficiency virus,immune activation factors, andquinolinic acid in AIDS brains. J Clin Invest
Everall, IP, Luthert, PJ, Lantos, PL.
Neuronal loss in the frontalcortex in HIV infection. Lancet
Masliah, E, Ge, N, Achim, CL, et al.
Selective neuronal vulnerabilityin HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol
Masliah, E, Ge, N, Morey, M, et al.
Cortical dendritic pathology inhuman immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Lab Invest
Dal Pan, GB, Berger, JR.
Spinal Cord Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. In: Berger, J.L.
RM AIDS and the Nervous System. 2nd Ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven Publishers, 1997:173–187.
DiRocco, L, Dalton, T, Liang, D, et al.
Nonallelism for theaudiogenic seizure prone (Asp1) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) loci in mice. J Neurogenet
Fuller, GN, Jacobs, JM, Guiloff, RJ.
Nature and incidence of peripheral nerve syndromes in HIV infection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
Brannagan, TM, McAlarney, T, Latov, N, Peripheral neuropathy inHIV-1 infection. In: Latov, N.W. JH; Kelly, JJ.
Immunological and Infectious Diseases of the Peripheral Nerves. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1998:285–307.
Neurological complications of HIV infection. Lancet
1996; 348: 445–452.
Dalakas, MC, Cupler, EJ.
Neuropathies in HIV infection. BaillieresClin Neurol
McCarthy, BG, Hsieh, ST, Stocks, A, et al.
Cutaneous innervation insensory neuropathies: evaluation by skin biopsy. Neurology
Herrmann, DN, Griffin, JW, Hauer, P, et al.
Epidermal nerve fiberdensity and sural nerve morphometry in peripheral neuropathies. Neurology
Power, C, Johnson, RT.
Neurovirological and neuroimmunologicalaspects of HIV infection. Adv Virus Res
The molecular biology of human immunodeficiencyvirus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med
HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS. Second Ed. American Society of Microbiology. Washington. DC, 1998.
Korber, B, Foley, B, Leitner, T, et al.
Human retroviruses and AIDS. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences. Theoretical Biology and Biophysics. Group T-10. Los Alamos: Los Alamos National Library
Collman, R, Balliet, JW, Gregory, SA, et al.
An infectious molecularclone of an unusual macrophage-tropic and highly cytopathic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol
Deng, H, Liu, R, Ellmeier, W, et al.
Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1. Nature
Pierson, T, McArthur, J, Siliciano, RF.
Reservoirs for HIV-1:mechanisms for viral persistence in the presence of antiviral immune responses and antiretroviral therapy. Annu Rev Immunol
Koot, M, Vos, AH, Keet, RP, et al.
HIV-1 biological phenotype inlong-term infected individuals evaluatedwith an MT-2cocultivation assay. AIDS
Possible viral cause of multiple sclerosis. In: ViralInfections of the Nervous System. 2nd Ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998:248–258.
Retroviral diseases of the nervous system: pathogenichost response or viral gene-mediated neurovirulence?
Koyanagi, Y, Miles, S, Mitsuyasu, RT, et al.
Dual infection of thecentral nervous system by AIDS viruses with distinct cellulartropisms. Science
Bell, JE, Busuttil, A, Ironside, JW, et al.
Human immunodeficiencyvirus and the brain: investigation of virus load and neuropathologic changes in pre-AIDS subjects. J Infect Dis
Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virusinfection. Brain Pathol
Davis, TH, Morton, CC, Miller-Cassman, R, et al.
Hodgkin’s disease,lymphomatoid papulosis, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma derived from a common T-cell clone. N Engl J Med
Pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. Nature
Falangola, MF, Hanly, A, Galvao-Castro, B, et al.
HIV infection ofhuman choroid plexus: a possible mechanism of viral entry intothe CNS. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol
Chun, TW, Fauci, AS.
Latent reservoirs of HIV: obstacles to theeradication of virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Chen, H, Wood, C, Petito, CK.
Comparisons of HIV-1 viralsequences in brain, choroid plexus and spleen: Potential role of choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis. J Neurovirol
Pierson, T, Hoffman, TL, Blankson, J, et al.
Characterization of chemokine receptor utilization of viruses in the latent reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol
Cheng-Mayer, C, Weiss, C, Seto, D, et al.
Isolates of humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 from the brain may constitute a special group of the AIDS virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Reddy, RT, Achim, CL, Sirko, DA, et al.
Sequence analysis of the V3loop in brain and spleen of patients with HIV encephalitis. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
Power, C, McArthur, JC, Johnson, RT, et al.
Demented andnondemented patients with AIDS differ in brain-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope sequences. J Virol
Letendre, SL, Lanier, ER, McCutchan, JA.
Cerebrospinal fluid betachemokine concentrations in neurocognitively impaired individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis
Hurwitz, AA, Berman, JW, Lyman, WD.
The role of the blood-brainbarrier in HIV infection of the central nervous system. Adv Neuroimmunol
McArthur, JC, McClernon, DR, Cronin, MF, et al.
Relationshipbetween human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia and viral load in cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Ann Neurol
Brew, BJ, Pemberton, L, Cunningham, P, et al.
Levels of humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluidcorrelate with AIDS dementia stage. J Infect Dis
Koenig, S, Gendelman, HE, Orenstein, JM, et al.
Detection of AIDSvirus in macrophages in brain tissue from AIDS patients withencephalopathy. Science
Wiley, CA, Schrier, RD, Nelson, JA, et al.
Cellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus infection within the brains of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. Proc Natl AcadSci USA
Takahashi, K, Wesselingh, SL, Griffin, DE, et al.
Localization of HIV-1 in human brain using polymerase chain reaction/in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Ann Neurol
Kure, K, Weidenheim, KM, Lyman, WD, et al.
Morphology anddistribution of HIV-1 gp41-positive microglia in subacute AIDS encephalitis. Pattern of involvement resembling a multisystemdegeneration. Acta Neuropathol
Shaw, GM, Harper, ME, Hahn, BH, et al.
HTLV-III infection inbrains of children and adults with AIDS encephalopathy. Science
Bagasra, O, Lavi, E, Bobroski, L, et al.
Cellular reservoirs of HIV-1in the central nervous system of infected individuals: identification by the combination of in situ polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. AIDS
Nuovo, GJ, Gallery, F, MacConnell, P, et al.
In situ detection ofpolymerase chain reaction-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha RNA in the central nervous system. Am J Pathol
Moses, AV, Bloom, FE, Pauza, CD, et al.
Human immunodeficiencyvirus infection of human brain capillary endothelial cells occurs via a CD4/galactosylceramide-independent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Poland, SD, Rice, GP, Dekaban, GA.
HIV-1 infection of humanbrain-derived microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol
Gyorkey, F, Melnick, JL, Gyorkey, P.
Human immunodeficiencyvirus in brain biopsies of patients with AIDS and progressiveencephalopathy. J Infect Dis
Obregon, E, Punzon, C, Fernandez-Cruz, E, et al.
HIV-1 infectioninduces differentiation of immature neural cells through autocrine tumor necrosis factor and nitric oxide production. Virology
Ensoli, F, Cafaro, A, Fiorelli, V, et al.
HIV-1 infection of primaryhuman neuroblasts. Virology
Feng, Y, Broder, CC, Kennedy, PE, et al.
HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G proteincoupled receptor. Science
Alkhatib, G, Combadiere, C, Broder, CC, et al. CC CKR5: aRANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta receptor as a fusion cofactorfor macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 1996; 272: 1955-1958.
He, J, Chen, Y, Farzan, M, et al.
CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptorsfor HIV-1 infection of microglia. Nature
Watkins, BA, Dorn, HH, Kelly, WB, et al.
Specific tropism of HIV-1 for microglial cells in primary human brain cultures. Science
Power, C, McArthur, JC, Johnson, RT, et al.
Distinct HIV-1 envsequences are associated with neurotropism and neurovirulence. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol
Jordan, CA, Watkins, BA, Kufta, C, et al.
Infection of brainmicroglial cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is CD4 dependent. J Virol
Chan, SY, Speck, RF, Power, C, et al.
V3 recombinants indicate acentral role for CCR5 as a coreceptor in tissue infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol
Strizki, JM, Albright, AV, Sheng, H, et al.
Infection of primary humanmicroglia and monocyte-derived macrophages with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates: evidence of differentialtropism. J Virol
Chesebro, B, Wehrly, K, Nishio, J, et al.
Macrophage-tropic humanimmunodeficiency virus isolates from different patients exhibit unusual V3 envelope sequence homogeneity in comparison with T-cell-tropic isolates: definition of critical amino acids involvedin cell tropism. J Virol
Kwong, PD, Wyatt, R, Robinson, J, et al.
Structure of an HIV gp120envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody. Nature
Sanders, VJ, Pittman, CA, White, MG, et al.
Chemokines andreceptors in HIV encephalitis. AIDS
Zheng, J, Ghorpade, A, Niemann, D, et al.
Lymphotropic virionsaffect chemokine receptor-mediated neural signaling and apoptosis: implications for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated dementia. J Virol
Kaul, M, Lipton, SA.
Chemokines and activated macrophages inHIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Harouse, JM, Bhat, S, Spitalnik, SL, et al.
Inhibition of entry of HIV-1 in neural cell lines by antibodies against galactosyl ceramide. Science
Ma, M, Geiger, JD, Nath, A.
Characterization of a novel binding sitefor the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope proteingp 120 on human fetal astrocytes. J Virol
Chesebro, B, Nishio, J, Perryman, S, et al.
Identification of humanimmunodeficiency virus envelope gene sequences influencing viral entry into CD4-positive HeLa cells, T-leukemia cells, andmacrophages. J Virol
Westervelt, P, Trowbridge, DB, Epstein, LG, et al.
Macrophagetropism determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1in vivo. J Virol
Morris, A, Marsden, M, Halcrow, K, et al.
Mosaic structure of thehuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome infecting lymphoid cells and the brain: evidence for frequent in vivo recombination events in the evolution of regional populations. J Virol
Mayne, M, Bratanich, AC, Chen, P, et al.
HIV-1 tat moleculardiversity and induction of TNF-alpha: implications for HIV-induced neurological disease. Neuroimmunomodulation
Corboy, JR, Buzy, JM, Zink, MC, et al.
Expression directed fromHIV long terminal repeats in the central nervous system of transgenic mice. Science
Wong, JK, Ignacio, CC, Torriani, F, et al.
In vivocompartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus: evidence from the examination of pol sequences from autopsytissues. J Virol
Zhang, K, Hawken, M, Rana, F, et al.
Human immunodeficiencyVirus type 1 Clade A and neurotropism: molecular evolution, recombination and co-receptor utilization. Virology
Kanki, PJ, Hamel, DJ, Sankale, JL, et al.
Human immunodeficiencyvirus type 1 subtypes differ in disease progression. J Infect Dis
Drosopoulos, WC, Rezende, LF, Wainberg, MA, et al.
Virtues ofbeing faithful: can we limit the genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus?
J Mol Med
Kimata, JT, Kuller, L, Anderson, DB, et al.
Emerging cytopathic andantigenic simian immunodeficiency virus variants influence AIDS progression. Nat Med
Hughes, ES, Bell, JE, Simmonds, P.
Investigation of the dynamics ofthe spread of human immunodeficiency virus to brain and other tissues by evolutionary analysis of sequences from the p17gagand env genes. J Virol
Power, C, Buist, R, Johnston, JB, et al.
Neurovirulence in felineimmunodeficiency virus-infected neonatal cats is viral strain specific and dependent on systemic immune suppression. J Virol
Phillips, TR, Prospero-Garcia, O, Puaoi, DL, et al.
Neurologicalabnormalities associated with feline immunodeficiency virusinfection. J Gen Virol
Mankowski, JL, Flaherty, MT, Spelman, JP, et al.
Pathogenesis ofsimian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis: viral determinantsof neurovirulence. J Virol
Mankowski, JL, Spelman, JP, Ressetar, HG, et al.
Neurovirulentsimian immunodeficiency virus replicates productively in endothelial cells of the central nervous system in vivo and invitro. J Virol
Johnston, JB, Jiang, Y, van Marle, G, et al.
Lentiviral infection in thebrain induce matrix metalloproteinase expression: the role of envelope diversity. J Virol
Power, C, McArthur, JC, Nath, A, et al.
Neuronal death induced bybrain-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope genes differs between demented and nondemented AIDSpatients. J Virol
Smit, TK, Wang, B, Ng, T, et al.
Varied tropism of HIV-1 isolatesderived from different regions of adult brain cortex discriminate between patients with and without AIDS dementia complex (ADC): evidence for neurotropic HIV variants. Virology
Smith, K, Crandall, KA, Kneissl, ML, et al.
PCR detection of host and HIV-1 sequences from archival brain tissue. J Neurovirology
Ohagen, A, Ghosh, S, He, J, et al.
Apoptosis induced by infection ofprimary brain cultures with diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates: evidence for a role of the envelope. J Virol
Nath, A, Geiger, J.
Neurobiological aspects of humanimmunodeficiency virus infection: neurotoxic mechanisms. ProgNeurobiol
Dreyer, EB, Kaiser, PK, Offermann, JT, et al.
HIV-1 coat proteinneurotoxicity prevented by calcium channel antagonists. Science
Kaiser, PK, Offermann, JT, Lipton, SA.
Neuronal injury due to HIV-1 envelope protein is blocked by anti-gp120 antibodies but notby anti-CD4 antibodies. Neurology
Barks, JD, Liu, XH, Sun, R, et al.
gp120, a human immunodeficiencyvirus-1 coat protein, augments excitotoxic hippocampal injury in perinatal rats. Neuroscience
Giulian, D, Wendt, E, Vaca, K, et al.
The envelope glycoprotein ofhuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 stimulates release of neurotoxins from monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Pattarini, R, Pittaluga, A, Raiteri, M.
The human immunodeficiencyvirus-1 envelope protein gp120 binds through its V3 sequence to the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediating noradrenaline release in the hippocampus. Neuroscience
Lipton, SA, Gendelman, HE.
Seminars in medicine of the Beth IsraelHospital, Boston. Dementia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med
Lee, J, Zipfel, G, Choi, D.
The changing landscape of ischaemicbrain injury mechanisms. Nature
1999; 399: A7-A14.
Memantine prevents HIV coat protein-inducedneuronal injury in vitro. Neurology
Bennett, BA, Rusyniak, DE, Hollingsworth, CK.
HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity to midbrain dopamine cultures. Brain Res
Dawson, VL, Dawson, TM, Uhl, GR, et al.
Humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 coat protein neurotoxicity mediated by nitric oxide in primary cortical cultures. Proc NatlAcad Sci USA
Toggas, SM, Masliah, E, Rockenstein, EM, et al.
Central nervoussystem damage produced by expression of the HIV-1 coat protein gp120 in transgenic mice. Nature
Benos, DJ, McPherson, S, Hahn, BH, et al.
Cytokines and HIVenvelope glycoprotein gp120 stimulate Na+/H+ exchange in astrocytes. J Biol Chem
Shrikant, P, Benos, DJ, Tang, LP, et al.
HIV glycoprotein 120enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expression in glial cells. Involvement of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and protein kinase C signalingpathways. J Immunol
Adamson, DC, Wildemann, B, Sasaki, M, et al.
Immunologic NOsynthase: elevation in severe AIDS dementia and induction byHIV-1 gp41. Science
Nath, A, Psooy, K, Martin, C, et al.
Identification of a humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat epitope that is neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic. J Virol
129. Chen P, Mayne M, Power C, et al.
The Tat protein of HIV-1 inducestumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Implications for HIV-1-associated neurological diseases. J Biol Chem
Nath, A, Conant, K, Chen, P, et al.
Transient exposure to HIV-1 Tatprotein results in cytokine production in macrophages and astrocytes. A hit and run phenomenon. J Biol Chem
Conant, K, Garzino-Demo, A, Nath, A, et al.
Induction of monocytechemoattractant protein-1 in HIV-1 Tat-stimulated astrocytes and elevation in AIDS dementia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Catani, MV, Corasaniti, MT, Navarra, M, et al.
gp120 induces cell death in human neuroblastoma cells through the CXCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptors
Johnston, JB, Zhang, K, Silva, C, et al.
HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity isprevented by matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Ann Neurol
Perelson, AS, Essunger, P, Cao, Y, et al.
Decay characteristics ofHIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature
Ellis, RJ, Hsia, K, Spector, SA, et al.
Cerebrospinal fluid humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels are elevated in neurocognitively impaired individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV Neurobehavioral ResearchCenter Group. Ann Neurol
Ellis, RJ, Gamst, AC, Capparelli, E, et al.
Cerebrospinal fluid HIVRNA originates from both local CNS and systemic sources. Neurology
Johnson, RT, Glass, JD, McArthur, JC, et al.
Quantitation of humanimmunodeficiency virus in brains of demented and nondemented patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol
Lazarini, F, Seilhean, D, Rosenblum, O, et al.
Humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA and RNA load in brains of demented and nondemented patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Neurovirol
Royal, W, 3rd, Selnes, OA, Concha, M, et al.
Cerebrospinal fluidhuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigenlevels in HIV-1-related dementia. Ann Neurol
Brew, BJ, Rosenblum, M, Cronin, K, et al.
AIDS dementia complexand HIV-1 brain infection: clinical-virological correlations. AnnNeurol
Vazeux, R, Lacroix-Ciaudo, C, Blanche, S, et al.
Low levels ofhuman immunodeficiency virus replication in the brain tissue of children with severe acquired immunodeficiency syndromeencephalopathy. Am J Pathol
Gonzalez-Scarano, F, Baltuch, G.
Microglia as mediators ofinflammatory and degenerative diseases. Annu Rev Neurosci
Giulian, D, Vaca, K, Noonan, CA.
Secretion of neurotoxins bymononuclear phagocytes infected with HIV-1. Science
Pulliam, L, Herndier, BG, Tang, NM, et al.
Humanimmunodeficiency virus-infected macrophages produce soluble factors that cause histological and neurochemical alterations incultured human brains. J Clin Invest
Tardieu, M, Janabi, N.
HIV-1 and the developing human nervoussystem: in vivo and in vitro aspects. Dev Neurosci
Gendelman, HE, Persidsky, Y, Ghorpade, A, et al.
Theneuropathogenesis of the AIDS dementia complex. AIDS
Tyor, WR, Glass, JD, Griffin, JW, et al.
Cytokine expression in thebrain during the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AnnNeurol
1992; 31: 349–360.
Wesselingh, SL, Power, C, Glass, JD, et al.
Intracerebral cytokinemessenger RNA expression in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia. Ann Neurol
Gelbard, HA, Nottet, HS, Swindells, S, et al.
Platelet-activatingfactor: a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced neurotoxin. J Virol
Merrill, JE, Chen, IS.
HIV-1, macrophages, glial cells, and cytokinesin AIDS nervous system disease. FASEB J
Wilt, SG, Milward, E, Zhou, JM, et al.
In vitro evidence for a dualrole of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalopathy. Ann Neurol
Fine, SM, Angel, RA, Perry, SW, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor alphainhibits glutamate uptake by primary human astrocytes. Implications for pathogenesis of HIV-1 dementia. J Biol Chem
Westmoreland, SV, Kolson, D, Gonzalez-Scarano, F.
Toxicity of TNFalpha and platelet activating factor for human NT2N neurons: a tissue culture model for human immunodeficiency virusdementia. J Neurovirol
Sippy, BD, Hofman, FM, Wallach, D, et al.
Increased expression oftumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors in the brains of patients with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol
Boven, LA, Middel, J, Portegies, P, et al.
Overexpression of nervegrowth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in AIDS dementia complex. J Neuroimmunol
1999; 97: 154–162.
Triggiani, M, Oriente, A, de Crescenzo, G, et al.
Biochemicalfunctions of a pool of arachidonic acid associated with triglycerides in human inflammatory cells. Int Arch AllergyImmunol
Griffin, DE, Wesselingh, SL, McArthur, JC.
Elevated central nervoussystem prostaglandins in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Ann Neurol
Genis, P, Jett, M, Bernton, EW, et al.
Cytokines and arachidonicmetabolites produced during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected macrophage-astroglia interactions: implications for the neuropathogenesis of HIV disease. J Exp Med
Rothstein, JD, Dykes-Hoberg, M, Pardo, CA, et al.
Knockout ofglutamate transporters reveals a major role for astroglial transport in excitotoxicity and clearance of glutamate. Neuron
Saito, K, Heyes, MP.
Kynurenine pathway enzymes in brain.Properties of enzymes and regulation of quinolinic acidsynthesis. Adv Exp Med Biol
Tryptophan metabolism and brain function: focus onkynurenine and other indole metabolites. Eur J Pharmacol
Sei, S, Saito, K, Stewart, SK, et al.
Increased humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 DNA content and quinolinic acid concentration in brain tissues from patients withHIV encephalopathy. J Infect Dis
Heyes, MP, Brew, BJ, Martin, A, et al.
Quinolinic acid incerebrospinal fluid and serum in HIV-1 infection: relationship to clinical and neurological status. Ann Neurol
Conant, K, McArthur, JC, Griffin, DE, et al.
Cerebrospinal fluidlevels of MMP-2, 7, and 9 are elevated in association with human immunodeficiency virus dementia. Ann Neurol
Yong, VW, Krekoski, CA, Forsyth, PA, et al.
Matrixmetalloproteinases and diseases of the CNS. Trends Neurosci
Rostasy, K, Monti, L, Yiannoutsos, C, et al.
Humanimmunodeficiency virus infection, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and microglial activation: pathogenetic relationship to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex. Ann Neurol
Boven, LA, Gomes, L, Hery, C, et al.
Increased peroxynitrite activityin AIDS dementia complex: implications for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. J Immunol
Giulian, D, Yu, J, Li, X, et al.
Study of receptor-mediated neurotoxinsreleased by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes found inhuman brain. J Neurosci
Ransohoff, RM, Tani, M.
Do chemokines mediate leukocyterecruitment in post-traumatic CNS inflammation?
Kelder, W, McArthur, JC, Nance-Sproson, T, et al.
Beta-chemokinesMCP-1 and RANTES are selectively increased in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus- associateddementia. Ann Neurol
Meucci, O, Fatatis, A, Simen, AA, et al.
Chemokines regulatehippocampal neuronal signaling and gp120 neurotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Corder, EH, Robertson, K, Lannfelt, L, et al.
HIV-infected subjectswith the E4 allele for APOE have excess dementia and peripheralneuropathy. Nat Med
Quasney, MW, Zhang, Q, Sargent, S, et al.
Increased frequency of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308 A allele in adults with human immunodeficiency virus dementia. Ann Neurol
Boven, LA, van der Bruggen, T, Sweder van Asbeck, B, et al.
Potential role of CCR5 polymorphism in the development of AIDS dementia complex. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol
Van Rij, RP, Portegies, P, Hallaby, T, et al.
Reduced prevalence of theCCR5 delta32 heterozygous genotype in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with AIDS dementiacomplex. J Infect Dis
Arthos, J, Rubbert, A, Rabin, RL, et al.
CCR5 signal transduction inmacrophages by human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus envelopes. J Virol
O’Brien, SJ, Nelson, GW, Winkler, CA, et al.
Polygenic andmultifactorial disease gene association in man: lessons from AIDS. Annu Rev Genet
Nicotera, P, Lipton, SA
Excitotoxins in neuronal apoptosis andnecrosis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab
Everall, IP, Glass, JD, McArthur, J, et al.
Neuronal density in thesuperior frontal and temporal gyri does not correlate with the degree of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Acta Neuropathol
Wiley, CA, Masliah, E, Morey, M, et al.
Neocortical damage during HIV infection. Ann Neurol
Ketzler, S, Weis, S, Haug, H, et al.
Loss of neurons in the frontalcortex in AIDS brains. Acta Neuropathol
Everall, IP, Heaton, RK, Marcotte, TD, et al.
Cortical synapticdensity is reduced in mild to moderate human immunodeficiency virus neurocognitive disorder. HNRC Group. HIV Neuro-behavioral Research Center. Brain Pathol
Fox, L, Alford, M, Achim, C, et al.
Neurodegeneration ofsomatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol
Gelbard, HA, James, HJ, Sharer, LR, et al.
Apoptotic neurons inbrains from paediatric patients with HIV-1 encephalitis and progressive encephalopathy. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Adle-Biassette, H, Levy, Y, Colombel, M, et al.
Neuronal apoptosisin HIV infection in adults. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Adle-Biassette, H, Chretien, F, Wingertsmann, L, et al.
Neuronalapoptosis does not correlate with dementia in HIV infection but is related to microglial activation and axonal damage. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
He, J, de Castro, CM, Vandenbark, GR, et al.
Astrocyte apoptosisinduced by HIV-1 transactivation of the c-kit protooncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Thompson, KA, McArthur, JC, Wesselingh, SL.
Correlation between neurological progression and astrocyte apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Ann Neurol
Lannuzel, A, Barnier, JV, Hery, C, et al.
Human immunodeficiencyvirus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neurons. Ann Neurol
Maggirwar, SB, Tong, N, Ramirez, S, et al.
HIV-1 Tat-mediatedactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta contributes to Tatmediated neurotoxicity. J Neurochem
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Arch Neurol
Price, RW, Yiannoutos, T, Clifford, DB, et al.
Neurological outcomesin late HIV infection:adverse impact of neurological survival and protection effect of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS
Dore, GJ, Correll, PK, Li, Y, et al.
Changes to AIDS dementiacomplex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS
Ferrando, S, van Gorp, W, McElhiney, M, et al.
Highly activeantiretroviral treatment in HIV infection: benefits for neuropsychological function. AIDS
Tozzi, V, Balestra, P, Galgani, S, et al.
Positive and sustained effectsof highly active antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment [In Process Citation]. AIDS
Sacktor, NC, Lyles, RH, Skolasky, RL, et al.
Combinationantiretroviral therapy improves psychomotor speed performance in HIV-seropositive homosexual men. Multicenter AIDS CohortStudy (MACS). Neurology
Brew, BJ, Halman, MH, Catalan, J, et al.
Abacavir in AIDS dementiacomplex: efficacy and lessons for future trials. AIDS, submitted.
Harrigan, PR, Alexander, CS.
Selection of drug-resistant HIV[published erratum appears in trends Microbiol 1999 Jul;7(7):302]. Trends Microbiol
Hirsch, MS, Conway, B, D’Aquila, RT, et al.
Antiretroviral drugresistance testing in adults with HIV infection: implications for clinical management. International AIDS Society – USA Panel. JAMA
Bratanich, AC, Liu, C, McArthur, JC, et al.
Brain-derived HIV-1 tatsequences from AIDS patients with dementia show increased molecular heterogeneity. J Neurovirol
McArthur, JC, Yiannoutsos, C, Simpson, DM, et al.
A phase II trialof nerve growth factor for sensory neuropathy associated with HIV infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Team 291 [published erratumappears in Neurology 2000 Jul 13;55(1):162]. Neurology
Schifitto, G, Sacktor, N, Marder, K, et al.
Randomized trial of theplatelet-activating factor antagonist lexipafant in HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Neurological AIDS Research Consortium. Neurology
Navia, BA, Dafni, U, Simpson, D, et al.
A phase I/II trial ofnimodipine for HIV-related neurologic complications. Neurology