Background: Inadequate postoperative pain control is common and is associated with negative clinical outcomes. The objective is to identify preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain control in the adult population undergoing inpatient surgery. Methods: Meta-analysis was performed according to MOOSE guidelines. Studies were included if they evaluated postoperative pain using a validated instrument in adults undergoing inpatient surgery and reported a measure of association between poor postoperative pain control and at least one preoperative predictor. Measures of association were pooled using random effects models. Results: A total of 33 studies representing 59,259 patients were included. Significant preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain included sleeping difficulties (OR 2.32 [95% CI 1.46-3.69]), history of depressive symptoms (OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.32-2.22]), use of preoperative analgesia (OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.18-2.03]), smoking (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.09-1.61]), -female sex (OR 1.29 [95% CI 1.17-1.43]), presence of preoperative pain (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.10-1.32]], history of anxiety symptoms (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.09-1.36)], younger age (OR 1.18 [95% CI 1.05-1.32)], and higher BMI (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.03]). Conclusions: Nine significant predictors of poor postoperative pain control were identified and these should be recognized as important factors when developing pre- and peri-operative strategies to improve pain outcomes.