Background: A previously healthy 26 year-old male presented with confusion and recurrent hypoglycemia (blood glucose lows of 2.5 mmol/L) while on vacation in Las Vegas. He denied substance or heavy alcohol use and the toxicology screen was negative. He was transferred home to Winnipeg for further care and was found to have only patchy memories of his trip and the days leading up to the trip, consistent with mixed anterograde and retrograde amnesia. MoCA score at presentation was 16/30 with points lost on orientation, delayed recall and visuospatial-executive tasks. MRI revealed T2 hyperintensities and diffusion abnormalities in bilateral hippocampi and globus pallidi. Electroencephalography showed triphasic waves. The patient was found to have a pancreatic insulinoma, which was surgically resected. In follow-up nine weeks later he was near his cognitive baseline, though he had ongoing difficulties with delayed recall. Repeat MRI showed improvement but not resolution of hippocampal and pallidal signal change, with mild hippocampal atrophy.
Neuropathological and animal studies have shown that structures most sensitive to hypoglycemic neural injury include the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and neocortex. The clinical and radiographic findings in this case illustrate an unusual presentation of insulinoma and the effects of hypoglycemia on the brain. Methods: N/A Results: N/A Conclusions: N/A