The authors are grateful to Vito Forte, Paolo Campisi and Brian Carrillo for advice and support regarding use of the OphthoSimTM device and assistance with set-up and technical support. The authors thank all the residents who took the time out of their schedules to participate in this study.
EK and EAY received funding from the Mary Jo Haddad Innovation Fund. EAY receives funding from the MS Society of Canada, the National MS Society, Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Network, SickKids Foundation, Centre for Brain and Mental Health, and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. She has served on the scientific advisory board for Juno Therapeutics, and is a relapse adjudicator for ACI. She has also received speaker's honorarium from Novartis and unrestricted funds from Teva for educational symposium. TB, AA, AA and SG have nothing to disclose.
Statement of Authorship
EK conceptualized and designed the study, drafted the initial manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. SAG carried out the initial analyses and interpretation of data, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. TB recruited participants and helped carry out the acquisition of data, critically reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. AA helped with the study design, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. AA helped with the study design and approved the final manuscript as submitted. EAY conceptualized and designed the study, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. All authors approved the manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
This study was funded in part by the Mary Jo Haddad Innovation Fund.
1. McCarthy, DM, Leonard, HR, Vozenilek, JA. A new tool for testing and training ophthalmoscopic skills. J Grad Med Educ. 2012;4(1):92-96.
2. Shuttleworth, GN, Marsh, GW. How effective is undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in ophthalmology? Eye (Lond). 1997;11(Pt 5):744-7750.
3. Vernon, SA. Eye care and the medical student: where should emphasis be placed in undergraduate ophthalmology? J R Soc Med. 1988;81(6):335-337.
4. Noble, J, Somal, K, Gill, HS, Lam, WC. An analysis of undergraduate ophthalmology training in Canada. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44(5):513-518.
5. Morad, Y, Barkana, Y, Avni, I, Kozer, E. Fundus anomalies: what the pediatrician’s eye can’t see. Int J Qual Health Care. 2004;16(5):363-365.
6. Gupta, RR, Lam, WC. Medical students’ self-confidence in performing direct ophthalmoscopy in clinical training. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41(2):169-174.
7. Lueder, GT, White, AJ. Ophthalmology education in pediatric residency training programs. J AAPOS. 2010;14(1):58-60.
8. Dalay, S, Umar, F, Saeed, S. Fundoscopy: a reflection upon medical training? Clin Teach. 2013;10(2):103-106.
9. Kelly, LP, Garza, PS, Bruce, BB, Graubart, EB, Newman, NJ, Biousse, V. Teaching ophthalmoscopy to medical students (the TOTeMS study). Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156(5):1056-1061 e10.
10. Dooley, JM, Gordon, KE. Ophthalmoscopy: a 7-step program. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008;35(2):237-242.
11. Asman, P, Linden, C. Internet-based assessment of medical students’ ophthalmoscopy skills. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88(8):854-857.
12. Milani, BY, Majdi, M, Green, W, et al. The use of peer optic nerve photographs for teaching direct ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(4):761-765.
13. Harris, PA, Taylor, R, Thielke, R, Payne, J, Gonzalez, N, Conde, JG. Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomed Inform. 2009;42(2):377-381.
14. Wu, EH, Fagan, MJ, Reinert, SE, Diaz, JA. Self-confidence in and perceived utility of the physical examination: a comparison of medical students, residents, and faculty internists. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(12):1725-1730.
15. Roberts, E, Morgan, R, King, D, Clerkin, L. Funduscopy: a forgotten art? Postgrad Med J. 1999;75(883):282-284.