Background: This study examines whether age is a key determinant for inflammatory response, oligodendroglial apoptosis and axonal survival after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: This study includes post-mortem spinal cord tissue from 64 cases of SCI (at cervical or high-thoracic level) and 38 controls cases. Each group was subdivided into younger and elderly individuals (≥65 years). Alternating sections from 2 to 3 segments caudal to SCI and age/sex/level-matched segments from controls were stained for: (i) neuroinflammation (neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes); (ii) apoptotic oligodendrocytes; (iii) axons; (iv) extent of degeneration. The number of cells or axons was counted in the motor and sensory areas within the spinal cord using unbiased stereological techniques. Results: Younger and elderly individuals had statistically similar number of inflammatory cells in most of the stages post-SCI. Younger and elderly individuals had similar number of oligodendrocytes in apoptosis in all stages following SCI. The number of preserved axons did not significantly differ between younger and elderly individuals with SCI and without prior CNS injury. Extend of degeneration within the spinal cord white matter did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that age at the time of injury does not adversely affect the cellular inflammatory response, oligodendroglial apoptosis and axonal survival after traumatic SCI.