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Automaticity and Invariant Measures of Linear Cellular Automata

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 September 2019

Eric Rowland
Department of Mathematics, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, USA Email:
Reem Yassawi
Institut Camille Jordan, Université Lyon-1, France School of Mathematics and Statistics, Open University, UK Email:


We show that spacetime diagrams of linear cellular automata $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}:\,\mathbb{F}_{p}^{\mathbb{Z}}\rightarrow \mathbb{F}_{p}^{\mathbb{Z}}$ with $(-p)$-automatic initial conditions are automatic. This extends existing results on initial conditions that are eventually constant. Each automatic spacetime diagram defines a $(\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7})$-invariant subset of $\mathbb{F}_{p}^{\mathbb{Z}}$, where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ is the left shift map, and if the initial condition is not eventually periodic, then this invariant set is nontrivial. For the Ledrappier cellular automaton we construct a family of nontrivial $(\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7})$-invariant measures on $\mathbb{F}_{3}^{\mathbb{Z}}$. Finally, given a linear cellular automaton $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}$, we construct a nontrivial $(\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7})$-invariant measure on $\mathbb{F}_{p}^{\mathbb{Z}}$ for all but finitely many $p$.

MSC classification

© Canadian Mathematical Society 2019

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This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Grant Agreement No 648132.


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