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CONTROL OF THE ENGLISH GRAIN APHID [SITOBION AVENAE (F.)] (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) AND THE OAT-BIRDCHERRY APHID [RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI (L.)] (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) ON WINTER CEREALS1

  • K.A. Neil (a1), S.O. Gaul (a2) and K.B. McRae (a2)

Abstract

Seasonal abundance of Sitobion avenae (F.) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) was monitored in Nova Scotia winter wheat plots. Rhopalosiphum padi was the more common aphid species during "heading out." Winter wheat cultivars differed in their resistance to R. padi development; the highest reproductive rate was on ’Absolvent.’ The effect of chemicals used in intensive cereal management on R. padi and Coccinella septempunctata (L.) was assessed. Dimethoate and carbaryl caused similar high mortality to both insects, but pirimicarb was more toxic to the aphid than to its predator. Over a 2-year period, field plots that received regular pirimicarb treatments for selective aphid control early in the growing season showed a 9% increase in wheat yield, compared with the checks and plots that received carbaryl. Wheat yield increased 18% when pirimicarb was used later in the season; when applied in both periods, pirimicarb gave a total yield increase of nearly 30%. Late applications of carbaryl alone, or in combination with pirimicarb, increased yields by only 9% over the controls. Half of the yield increase (18% vs. 9%) with late season control by pirimicarb was lost with the addition of carbaryl, which minimized the C. septempunctata population for nonselective insect control. Rhopalosiphum padi numbers from June 20 to July 15 had the greatest impact on yield in these plots, and natural control agents including C. septempunctata accounted for a 9% increase in yield.

L’abondance saisonnière de Sitobion avenae (F), et de Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) a été évaluée dans des champs de blé d’hiver en Nouvelle-Ecosse. Rhopalosiphum padi s’est avéré le puceron le plus commun dans les champs durant la période d’épiaison. Les divers cultivars de blé d’hiver n’ont pas tous la même résistance à l’envahissement de R. padi et le taux le plus élevé de reproduction du puceron a été enregistré dans le cultivar «Absolvent». L’effet sur R. padi et sur Coccinella septempunctata (L.) de produits chimiques communément utilisés dans les cultures de céréales a été estimé. Le diméthoate et le carbaryl entraînent des taux de mortalité élevés semblables chez les deux espèces, mais le pirimicarbe a un effet plus toxique sur le puceron que sur son prédateur. Au cours d’une période de 2 ans, dans les champs soumis à des traitements au pirimicarbe à intervalles réguliers dans un effort de lutte spécifique contre certains pucerons au début de la saison de croissance, la récolte de blé a été de 9% plus élevée que dans les champs témoins ou les champs traités au carbaryl. Le rendement a augmenté de 18% lorsque le pirimicarbe a été utilisé plus tard dans la saison; après des applications au cours des deux périodes, le pirimicarbe a entraîné une augmentation totale de la récolte de près de 30%. Les applications tardives du carbaryl seul ou du carbaryl combiné au pirimicarbe n’ont permis qu’une augmentation de 9% du rendement par comparaison aux témoins. La moitié de l’augmentation du rendement (18% vs. 9%) après application tardive de pirimicarbe a été perdue par l’addition de carbaryl qui, à cause de ses effets non sélectifs, a diminué la population de C. septempunctata. C’est entre le 20 juin et le 15 juillet que le nombre de R. padi a eu le plus grand impact sur le rendement des champs et on peut attribuer aux agents naturels de lutte, tels C. septempunctata, une augmentation de 9% du rendement.

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CONTROL OF THE ENGLISH GRAIN APHID [SITOBION AVENAE (F.)] (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) AND THE OAT-BIRDCHERRY APHID [RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI (L.)] (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) ON WINTER CEREALS1

  • K.A. Neil (a1), S.O. Gaul (a2) and K.B. McRae (a2)

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