Arthropods associated with Populus coarse woody material (CWM) were sampled from aspen-mixedwood stands in north-central Alberta using rearings from wood bolts and flight-intercept traps attached to snags. More than 39 000 arthropod specimens were collected over 3 years, comprised mainly of Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Acari. Detailed analyses are provided to compare the number of species, standardized abundance, and trophic structure between collecting methods for 257 saproxylic species of Coleoptera. Abundance of beetle species, from both rearings and window traps, and rarefaction estimates of species richness indicate little difference between methods with respect to expected number of species. However the abundance of particular beetle families differed significantly between methods, with the Aderidae, Anthicidae, and Scaphidiidae collected mainly in rearings and the Micropeplidae, Bostrichidae, Cephaloidae, Clambidae, Salpingidae, and Tenebrionidae more commonly collected with window traps. Fungivorous and predatory beetles were more abundant in CWM than wood borers, scavengers, or taxa with undetermined feeding habits, but the two methods revealed similar overall trophic structure. To census the variability in saproxylic arthropod faunas from CWM, a combination of collecting methods is recommended.