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The Black Hunter and the Origin of the Athenian Ephebeia1

  • Pierre Vidal-Naquet

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Page 49 note 1 This paper was read in French in a slightly different Version, at the Association pour l'encouragement des etudes grecques, on 6 February 1967 (summary in REG,1967, pp. xxx-xxxi) and in English at the Cambridge Philological Society, on 15 February 1968. My wärmest thanks go to Mrs J. Lloyd for her translation. Footnotes have of course been added to the original lecture. The French text will be published in Annales, EconomiesSociitesCiviäsations (1968).

Page 49 note 2 For the controversy, see Wilamowitz, Aristoteles und Athen (Berlin, 1893), 1, 193-4; L. Robert, Etudes epigraphiques et phiblogiques (Paris, 1938), pp. 297-307; H. Jeanmaire, Couroi et Couretes (Lille and Paris, 1939); C. Pelekidis, Histoire del'iphebie attique (Paris, 1962) (with a füll bibliography); H. I. Marrou, Histoire de l'education dans l'Antiquitd’ (Paris, 1964), pp. 163-8, 521-2, 539-44; P. Vidal-Naquet, ‘La tradition de l'hoplite athenien', in Problémes de la guerre en Grece ancienne, ed. J. P. Vernant (Paris, 1968), pp. 161-81, especially pp. 176-81.

Page 49 note 3 ‘La Cryptie lacédémonienne', REG(1913), pp. 121-50.

Page 49 note 4 Review of A. Brenot, Recherches sur l'ephebie attique (Paris, 1920), in REG(1921), p. 459, commenting on Ath. Pol. 42, 5.

Page 50 note 2 4. 67-8.

Page 50 note 3 Thucydides 8. 92. 2.

Page 50 note 4 See Inscr. Cret. 1, ix (Dreros), 1. 126-7; for = to be a young soldier in the frontier forts, see H. van Effenterre, ‘Fortins cretois', Milanges Ch, Picard (Paris, 1948), pp. 1033-46. For a clear-cut—and official—distinction between the frontier zone and the proper territories of Argos and Sparta, see Thucydides 5. 41. 2 ( = Bengtson, Staatsverträge, no. 192).

Page 50 note 5 ‘ L'äge correspondant au sacrifice du et les donnees historiques du sixieme discours d'Isee', Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg, Cl. Lettres (1953), pp. 358-94; for the meaning of

cf. J. Labarbe, La Loi navale de Themistocle (Paris, 1957), pp. 67-75, and C. Peiekidis, op. cit. pp. 51-60.

Page 51 note 1 See Sylloge, 921. 27-8 (the so-called ruling of the Demotionides).

Page 51 note 2 Here is a list, certainly incomplete, of the ‘sources’ (a quite inadequate term, as one will easily notice, for most of the quoted texts): Hellanikos, F. Gr. Hist. 4, 125 (323a, 23) = Schol. T Plato, Symp. 208 D; Ephoros, F. Gr. Hist. 70, 22 = Harpokr. s.v.’ ; Konon, Narraüones, F. Gr. Hist. 26, 39; Strabo 9. 393; Frontinus, Strat. 2. 5. 41; Polyaenus, Strat. 1. 19; Justin 2. 6. 16-21; Pausanias 2.. 18. 8-9; 9. 5. 16; Euseb. Chron. p. 56 (Schoene); Johannes Antioch., FHGiv, 539, 19; Proclos, in Timaeum, z-je., 88, 11 Diehl; Nonnos, Dionysiaca 27. 301-8; Apostolios, Paroem. gr. in, col. 294 (Leutsch); Psellos, De Act. nomin., PG 122, col. 1018; Tzetzes, Comm. in Aristoph. ad Ran. 798, ed. W. J. W. Koster, iv, 3, pp. 907-9; Lycoph. 776; Etym. Magn. s.w. ‘; Lexicon Seguieranum, in Bekker, Anecd. Graec. 1, pp. 416—17; Schol. Aelius Aristid. in, p. m (Dindorf), Aristoph. Acharn. 146, Pax 890; Souda, pp. 265, 350, 451, 458 (Adler).

Page 51 note 3 See L. Robert, REA(1960), pp. 304-5.

Page 51 note 4 Guerre, agoni e culti nella Grecia arcaica (Bonn, 1961).

Page 52 note 1 Syllog2, 485.

Page 52 note 2 Xanthos-Melanthos and the Origin of Tragedy', C.R.(1926), pp. 179-81; the quotation is from p. 179.

Page 52 note 3 Quaest. Conv. 692D.

Page 52 note 4 (Berlin, 1889), pp. 225-41.

Page 52 note 5 Hermes (1886), p. 112 n. 2.

Page 52 note 6 F. Gr. Hist. III b II, p. 50..

Page 53 note 1 ‘Göttliche Synonyme', Rh. M. (1898), pp. 329-79 (especially pp. 365-9), following a Suggestion of E. Maass, Gatt. Gel. Anz. (1889), 805 n. 13; see also Usener, Archiv für Religionswiss. (1904), pp. 301-13

Page 53 note 2 JHS(1909), p. xlvii; Cults of the Greek States (Oxford, 1909), pp. 130-1, 234-6. Farnell's theory was very near Nilsson's which, of course, he did not know (see below, note 5).

Page 53 note 3 Zeus, 1 (Cambridge, 1914), p. 689.

Page 53 note 4 A Handbook of Greek Literature (London, 1931), pp. 131—3.

Page 53 note 5 ‘Der Ursprung der Tragödie', Neue Jahrb. f. Kl. Alt. (1911), pp. 609-96= Opuscula Selecta, 1 (Lund, 1951), pp. 61-110, see pp. m-16.

Page 53 note 6 Pp. 382-3. ‘ 9. 5. 16. 8 Quaest. Graec. B, 294 B-c.

Page 53 note 9 See for the source Ed. Will, Korinthiaka (Paris, 1955), pp. 381-3.

Page 53 note 10 Op. dt. pp. 56-9. Marie Delcourt's comments in Pyrrhos et Pyrrha (Paris, 1965), p. 18, are completely mistaken.

Page 54 note 1 See L. Gernet, ‘Dolon le loup (A propos d'Homere et du Rhesus d'Euripide)', Annuaire de l'Inst. de Phil, et d'Hist. Orient, et Slaves, 4 (1936) Mélanges Fr. Cumont, Brüssels, 1936), pp. 189-208.

Page 54 note 2 Melantheus son of Dolios, p 212, x 159; Melantho daughter of Dolios, J 322, but Dolios himself is a sympathetic figure, co 222, 387, 397 f.

Page 54 note 3 Hellenica 1. 7. 8.

Page 54 note 4 F. Gr. Hist. 334, 2.

Page 54 note 5 ‘Les Chlamydes noires des ephebes athiniens', REA(1941), pp. 163-5.

Page 54 note 6 Aeschylus and Athens2 (London, 1946), p. 107.

Page 54 note 7 Die Bedeutung der weissen und der schwarten Farbe im Kult und Brauch der Griechen und Römern (diss. Berlin, 1936). See now also B. Moreux, ‘La nuit, l'ombre et la mort chez Homere', Phoenix (1967), pp. 237-72.

Page 55 note 1 Plato, Laws 1. 633B and the relevant and very important scholia on it; Heracleides in FHG11, 210, Plutarch, Lycurgus 28; for a certain Damoteles who was in Cleomenes’ army the head of the krypteia, that is to say in charge of the ambushes, see Plutarch, Cleomenes 28.

Page 55 note 2 De Lacedaemoniorum Cryptta Commentatio (Leipzig, 1835) = Opuscula philologica (Leipzig, 1881), 1, 580-91.

Page 55 note 3 Hellenische Alterthumskunde aus dem Gesichtspunkt des Staats2 (Halle, 1844), I, p. 462, II, p. 304.

Page 55 note 4 REG(1913), p. 142.

Page 56 note 1 Plutarch, Lycurgus 28. 7, quoting Aristotle. For a defence of the seriousness of this tradition, see M. I Finley, ‘Sparta', in Problémes de la guerre en Gréce ancienne (Paris, 1968), p. 147.

Page 56 note 2 See Cl. Levi-Strauss, ‘Le Triangle culinaire', L'Arc, xxvi (1966), 19-30, and more generally, Le Cru et le Cuit' (Paris, 1964); see also N. Yalman, ‘The Raw: the Cooked: Nature: Culture— Observations on Le Cru et le Cuit', in E. Leach (ed.), The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism (London, 1967).

Page 56 note 3 Etudes sur le vocabulaire grec (Paris, 1956), p. 32.

Page 56 note 4 (Cambridge, 1966).

Page 56 note 5 Les Rites de passage (Paris, 1909). On the concept of reversal, one could quote the whole of Levi-Strauss’ work, but see also S. Pembroke's important paper,’ Women in charge: the function of alternatives in Early Greek tradition and the ancient idea of matriarchy', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes (1967), pp. 1-35. When my paper was read in Cambridge, Dr Edmund Leach gave many examples of reversals, similar to those I am studying, in the ‘rites de passage' of archaic societies.

Page 57 note 1 Plutarch, Mulier. Virt. 245 F.

Page 57 note 2 Plutarch, Lycurgus 15. 5.

Page 57 note 3 1. 82.

Page 57 note 4 On the Oschophoria, See A. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen im Altertum (Leipzig, 1898), pp. 36, 278—82; A. Rutgers van der Loeff, ‘De Oschophorüs', Mnemosyne (1915), pp. 404-15; L. Deubner, Attische Feste (Berlin, 1932), pp. 142-6; A. Severyns, Recherches sur la Chrestomathie de Proclos, 11 (Paris, 1938), pp. 243-54; H. Jeanmaire, Couroi et Couretes, pp. 346-7, 524, 588; F. Jacoby, F. Gr. Hist. mbi (1954), pp. 285-304, mbii, pp. 193-223; P. Faure, Fonctions des cavernes crétoises (Paris, 1965), pp. 170—2.

Page 57 note 5 Plutarch, Theseus 22. 4.

Page 57 note 6 The entire literary tradition about the Oschophoria and Skira is printed in Jacoby, F. Gr. Hist. in bi, pp. 286-9, commenting on some of the most important texts, Philochoros, F. Gr. Hist. 328. 14-16. On the Oschophoria, the only significant epigraphical document is the great fourthcentury inscription (363 B.c.) first published with a füll commentary by W. S. Ferguson, Hesperia (1938), pp. 1-74, now reprinted by F. Sokolowsky, Lois sacries des cites grecques, Suppl. (Paris, 1962), no. 19.

Page 57 note 7 See the inscription cited above, 1. 49. The same genos also provided the deipnophoroi for the seclusion ceremonies in Phaleron. See also M. P. Nilsson, AJP(1938), pp. 731-41 = Opuscula Selecta, 11 (Lund, 1951), pp. 385-93.

Page 58 note 1 F. Gr. Hist. inb II, pp. 200-3. The sanctuary of Athena Skiras is defined as (Et. Magn. p. 717. 28).

Page 58 note 2 had two meanings: child having his two parents alive, child (or man) handing the twigs in the pompai. SeeL. Robert, “, Essays in honor of W. S. Ferguson (Cambridge, Mass., 1940), pp. 509-20. The second meaning is of course secondary, and festivals like the Oschophoria joined to a confusion with , young branch, favoured the contamination.

Page 58 note 3 See Plutarch, Theseus 23, quoting the Atthidographer Demon; Proclus, Chrestomathia (in Photius, Biblioth. 239), 88-91 (Severyns).

Page 58 note 4 18—25, 38. This last point seems to have remained unnoticed.

Page 58 note 5 Solon 8—9.

Page 58 note 6 Proclus, ibid. 91-2: ; Schol. Nikand. Alex. 109. The inscription of the Salaminioi quoted above seems to allude to this contest () in lines 61—2: (the two parts of the Salaminian genos) . The literary tradition is hopelessly confused as the sources seem to mingle at least four names of festivals: Oschophoria, Skira, Skirophoria, Thesmophoria. The first and the fourth took place in Pyanepsion, but what about the Skira, to which Aristodemos (F. Gr. Hist. 383, 9 in Athenaeus 2. 495 E) assigned the race of the ephebi? If the Skira, as is Said in Schol. Aristoph. Ecci. 18, were a June festival (12 Skirophorion), it is impossible to imagine the youths carrying oschoi, that is to say, bunches of ripe grapes! So I cannot follow Jacoby when he writes (F. Gr. Hist. mbi, p. 302): 'Our tradition is perfectly clear: the procession is attested for the Oschophoria, the race for the Skirophoria’ (or Skira), and clarifies the said tradition by admitting that part of Proclus’ text is interpolated. On the Skira, see most recently S. Dow and R. F. Healey, A Sacred Calendar of Eleusis (Cambridge, Mass., 1965), pp. 16-17, 33» 39-4'. 44, revising and commenting on IGit2. 1363, a book which must be read with some caution, as has been shown by J. and L. Robert, 'Bulletin epigraphique', REG(1967), no. 217, and the authors they cite.

Page 59 note 1 Aristodemos, loc. cit.; Proclus, loc. cit.; Plutarch, Theseus 22.

Page 59 note 2 See R. Willens, Aristocratic Society in Ancient Crete (London, 1955), pp. 11-14.

Page 59 note 3 Inscr. Cret. 1, xvi (Lato), 5. 21.

Page 59 note 4 ‘Ev , in Eustathius, 1592. 58; see Willens, ibid.

Page 59 note 5 The sources are given in J. Harrison, Themis2 (Cambridge, 1927). I cite the paperback edition (Cleveland, 1962), p. 234.

Page 59 note 6 See H. Jeaninaire, Couroi et Courètes, pp. 354-5; M. Delcourt, Hermaphrodite (Paris, 1958), pp. 5-27; see also B. Bettelheim, Symbolic Wounds, Puberty Rites and the Envious Male* (New York, 1962), pp. 109-21.

Page 59 note 7 Schol. Euripides, Alkestis 489.

Page 59 note 8 Plutarch, Theseus 23. 3; Proclus, op. cit. 89.

Page 59 note 9 See lnscr. Cret. I, ix (Dreros), 1. 11-12, 99-100; xix (Malla), 1. 18, with the commentaries of M. Guarducci, p. 87; see also E. Schwyier, Rh. M. (1928), pp. 237-48; H. van Effenterre, BCH ('937), PP- 327-32-

Page 59 note 10 See R. Willens, Cretan Cults and Festivals (London, 1962), pp. 175—8. The source is Antoninus Liberalis 17; see the commentaries of the Bude editor, M. Papathomopoulos.

Page 60 note 1 F. Gr. Hist. 70, 149 in Strabo 10. 490.

Page 60 note 2 Etudes sur le vocabulaire grec, pp. 40 f.

Page 60 note 3 Laws 6. 760E-761A.

Page 60 note 4 C. 559. On hunting in classical Greece, the main work remains O. Mannes, Über die Jagd bei den Griechen, Progr. Cassel (1888), pp. 7-38, (1889), pp. 3-20, (1890), pp. 3-21; some information in the ‘Roman’ book of J. Aymard, Cynegetica (Paris, 1951).

Page 60 note 5 In the famous Opposition between the hoplite and the archer in Euripides’ Herakles, the archer is rejected as a hunter of wild beasts (153-8).

Page 60 note 6 7. 822D-824A.

Page 60 note 7 Nemeans 3. 51 f.

Page 61 note 1 See P. Frotier de la Coste-Messeliere, Au Musee de Delphes (Paris, 1936), pp. 130-52; Chantraine, op. cit. pp. 64-5.

Page 61 note 2 In Athenaeus 1. 18 A.

Page 61 note 3 Lycurgus 12. 4.

Page 61 note 4 Resp. Lac. 6. 3, 4.

Page 61 note 5 Cynegetica 2. 25.

Page 61 note 6 Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorph. 12.

Page 61 note 7 Cynegetica 2. 3.

Page 61 note 8 Gli eroi Greci (Rome, 1958), p. 211 n. 51.

Page 62 note 1 Aristophanes Lysistrata (Berlin, 1927), pp. 169—70.

Page 62 note 2 Cynegetica 2. 28—9.

Page 62 note 3 8.6.4.

Page 62 note 4 Euripides, fr. 510 (Nauck); Theognis 1291-4; [Hesiod], fr. 73. 2; 76. 5, 20 (Merkelbach- West); Apollodorus 3. 9. 2; Aelian, Var. Hist. 13. 1. The literary texte on Atalanta are given e.g. in W. Immerwahr's dissertation, De Atalanta (Berlin, 1885). C. M. Bowra's essay, ‘Atalanta in Calydon’ Essays by Divers Hands, xxv= Trans, of the Royal Soc. ofLit. of the U.K., Oxford, 1950, pp. 51-69), although devoted to Swinburne's Atalanta, is suggestive. On the apple episode, see J. Trumpf, Hermes (i960), p. 20.

Page 62 note 5 3. 9. 2.

Page 62 note 6 Cynegetica 1. 7.

Page 62 note 7 Pausanias 5. 19. 2.

Page 63 note 1 , a half-child man, says Aeschylus, Sept. 533.

Page 63 note 2 Apollodorus 3. 9. 2; Ovid, Metam. 10. 560-680; Vatican Mythographer, i, 39 (Mai).

Page 63 note 3 I shall show in a forthcoming paper that Sophocles’ Philoctetes can and must be explained as a tragedy of ephebeia, the hero being of course young Neoptolemus.

Page 63 note 4 Xenophon's work represents this modification of the hoplite tradition. Many sentences, those, for instance, asking for training youths and older men for war by the practice of hunting, have a polemic meaning which has remained unnoticed.

Page 63 note 5 The most recent edition of the text is in G. Daux, ‘Deux steles d'Acharnes', Charistèrion A. Orlandos (Athens, 1964), pp. 78-90; see J. and L. Robert, REG(1966),’ Bulletin èpigraphique', no. 165.

Page 63 note 6 See e.g. G. Dumezil, L'Ideologie tripartite des Indo-Europiens (Brüssels, 1958), pp. 57—8.

Page 63 note 7 See G. Dumezil, Horace et les Curiaces (Paris, 1942), p. 37; Aspects de lafonction guerriere che\ les Indo-Europeens (Paris, 1956), p. 23. See also, generally, F. Vian, ‘La fonction guerriere dans la mythologie grecque', in Problemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne, pp. 53-68.

Page 64 note 1 1.68.

Page 64 note 2 For similar problems in ‘tribal societies’ R. Jaulin's excellent book, La mort Sara (Paris, 1967), pp. 50-119, which I read after this paper was completed. Jaulin's inquiry in vivo (the author was himself initiated into a Sara tribe, Chad) leads to results astonishingly similar to mine.

The Black Hunter and the Origin of the Athenian Ephebeia1

  • Pierre Vidal-Naquet

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