Arsuaga, J-L., Martinez, I., Gracia, A., Carretero, J-M. & Carbonell, E., 1993. Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Nature 363, 534–7.
Ashton, N.M., 1992. The High Lodge flint industries, in High Lodge: Excavations by G. de G. Sieveking 1962–68 & J. Cook 1988, eds. Ashton, N.M., Cook, J., Lewis, S.G. & Rose, J.. London: British Museum Press, 124–63.
Ashton, N.M. & McNabb, J., 1992. The interpretation and context of the High Lodge flint industries, in High Lodge: Excavations by G. de G. Sieveking 1962–68 & J. Cook 1988, eds. Ashton, N.M., Cook, J., Lewis, S.G. & Rose, J.. London: British Museum Press, 164–8.
Ashton, N.M., Cook, J., Lewis, S.G. & Rose, J. (eds.), 1992. High Lodge: Excavations by G. de G. Sieveking 1962–68 & J. Cook 1988. London: British Museum Press.
Ashton, N.M., Lewis, S.G. & Rose, J., 1992. Summary, in High Lodge: Excavations by G. de G. Sieveking 1962–68 & j. Cook 1988, eds. Ashton, N.M., Cook, J., Lewis, S.G. & Rose, J.. London: British Museum Press, 169–79.
Ayers, W.S. & Rhee, S.N., 1984. The Acheulian in Asia? A review of ‘Research on Korean Palaeolithic culture’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 50, 35–48.
Bandura, A., 1977. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall.
Beauchamp, G. & Cabana, G., 1990. Group size and variability in primates. Primates 31, 171–82.
Beck, B., 1974. Baboons, chimpanzees and tools. Journal of Human Evolution 3, 509–16.
Bednarik, R., 1992. Palaeoart and archaeological myths. Cambridge Archaeological journal 2(1), 27–43.
Bergman, C.A. & Roberts, M.B., 1988. Flaking technology at the Acheulian site of Boxgrove, West Sussex (England). Revue Archéologique de Picardie 1–2, 105–13.
Binford, L., 1985. Human ancestors: changing views of their behaviour, journal of Anthropological Archaeology 4, 292–327.
Binford, L., 1989. Isolating the transitions to cultural adaptations, in Debating Archaeology, by L. Binford. New York (NY): Academic Press, 423–36.
Boesch, C., 1991. Teaching among chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 41, 530–32.
Boesch, C., 1993. Aspects of transmission of tool-use in wild chimpanzees, in Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, eds. Gibson, K. & Ingold, T.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 171–83.
Boesch, C. & Boesch, H., 1983. Optimisation of nutcracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 83, 265–86.
Boesch, C. & Boesch, H., 1990. Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 54, 86–99.
Bowen, D.Q., Rose, J., McCabe, A.M. & Sutherland, D.G., 1986. Correlation of Quaternary glaciations in England, Ireland, Scotland & Wales, in Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere: Report of the International Geological Correlation Programme Project 24, ed s. Sibrava, V., Bowen, D.Q. & Richmond, G.M.. (Quaternary Science Reviews 5.) Oxford & New York (NY): Pergamon Press, 299–340.
Box, H.O., 1984. Primate Behaviour and Social Ecology. London: Chapman & Hall.
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P., 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago (IL): Chicago University Press.
Bradley, B. & Sampson, C.G., 1978. Artefacts from the Cottages site, in Palaeoecology and Archaeology of an Acheulian Site at Caddington, England, ed. Sampson, C.G.. Dallas (TX): Southern Methodist University, 83–137.
Briggs, D.J., Coope, G.R. & Gilbertson, D.D., 1985. The Chronology and Environmental Framework of Early Man in the Upper Thames Valley. (BAR 137.) Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
Byrne, R.W. & Whiten, A., 1988. Machiavellian Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Byrne, R.W. & Whiten, A., 1992. Cognitive evolution in primates: evidence from tactical deception. Man 27, 609‐27.
Cambefort, V.P., 1981. A comparative study of culturally transmitted patterns of feeding habits in the chacma baboon Papio ursinus and the vervet monkey Cercopithecus aethiops. Folio Primatalogica 36, 243–63.
Carpenter, C.P., 1934. A field study of the behaviour and social relations of howling monkeys. Comparative Psychology Monographs 10(2), 1–168.
Catt, J., Hubbard, R.N.L. & Sampson, C.G., 1978. Summary and conclusions, in Palaeoecology and Archaeology of an Acheulian Siteat Caddington, England, ed. Sampson, C.G.. Dallas (TX): Southern Methodist University, 138–49.
Chapman, C, 1990. Ecological constraints on group size in three species of neotropical primates. Folia Primatologica 55, 1‐9.
Chase, P., 1991. Symbols and Palaeolithic artefacts: style, standardization and the imposition of arbitrary form. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 10, 193‐214.
Chase, P. & Dibble, H., 1987. Middle Palaeolithic symbolism: a review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6, 263–96.
Chase, P. & Dibble, H., 1992. Scientific archaeology and the origins of symbolism: a reply to Bednarik. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1), 43–51.
Cheney, D.L. & Wrangham, R.W., 1987. Predation, in Primate Societies, eds. Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W. & Struhsaker, T.T.. Chicago (IL): Chicago University Press, 227–39.
Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Smuts, B.B. & Wrangham, R.W., 1987. The future of primate research, in Primate Societies, eds. Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W. & Struhsaker, T.T.. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press, 491–6.
Clayton, D., 1978. Socially facilitated behaviour. Quarterly Review of Biology 53, 373–91.
Clutton-Brock, T.H. & Harvey, P.H., 1977. Primate ecology and social organisation. Journal of the Zoological Society of London 183,1–39.
Collins, D., 1969. Culture traditions and environment of early man. Current Anthropology 10, 267–316.
Collins, D. & McGrew, W.C., 1987. Termite fauna related to differences in tool use between groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 28, 457–71.
Cook, J. & Ashton, N., 1991. High Lodge, Mildenhall. Current Archaeology 123, 133–8.
Corballis, M., 1989. Laterality and human evolution. Psychological Review 96, 492–505.
Corballis, M., 1992. The Lopsided Ape: Evolution of the Generative Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Coxon, P., Hall, A.P., Lister, A. & Stuart, A.J., 1980. New evidence on the vertebrate fauna, stratigraphy and palaeobotany of the interglacial deposits at Swanton Morley, Norfolk. Geographical Magazine 117, 525–46.
Cranshaw, S., 1983. Handaxes and Cleavers: Selected English Acheulian Industries. (BAR 113.) Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
Currant, A.P., 1986. Man and the Quaternary interglacial faunas of Britain, in The Palaeolithic of Britain and its Nearest Neighbours, ed. Collcut, S.N.. Sheffield: Department of Archaeology & Prehistory, 50–52.
Darby, C. & Riopelle, A., 1959. Observational learning in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 52, 94–8.
Davidson, I., 1991. The archaeology of language origins — a review. Antiquity 65, 39–48.
Davidson, I., 1992. There’s no art — to find the mind’s construction — in offence. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1), 52–7.
Davidson, I. & Noble, W., 1989. The archaeology of perception: traces of depiction and language. Current Anthropology 30, 125–55.
Dennell, R., 1983. European Economic Prehistory. New York (NY): Academic Press.
Dibble, H., 1987. The interpretation of Middle Palaeolithic scraper morphology. American Antiquity 52, 109–17.
Dibble, H., 1988. The implications of tool types for the presence of language during the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic, in The Human Revolution, eds. Mellars, P. & Stringer, C.. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 415–32.
Donald, M., 1991. Origins of the Modern Mind. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
Dunbar, R.I.M., 1988. Primate Social Systems. London: Croom Helm.
Dunbar, R.I.M., 1991. Functional significance of social grooming in primates. Folia Primatologica 57, 121–31.
Dunbar, R.I.M., 1992. Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates. Journal of Human Evolution 20, 469–93
Estes, R.D., 1974. Social organisation of the African Bovidae, in The Behaviour of Ungulates and its Relation to Management, eds. Geist, V. & Walthen, I.. Monges: IUCN, 166–205.
Falk, D., 1980. Language, handedness and primate brains: did the Australopithecines sign? American Anthropologist 82, 72–3.
Foley, R. A. & Lee, P.C., 1989. Finitesocial space, evolutionary pathways, and reconstructing hominid social behaviour. Science 243, 9016.
Fragaszy, D. & Visalberghi, E., 1990. Social processes affecting the appearance of innovative behaviours in Capuchin monkeys. Folia Primatologica 54, 155–65.
Galef, B.G., 1976. Social transmission of acquired behaviour: a discussion of tradition and social learning in vertebrates, in Advances in the Study of Behaviour 6, eds. Rosenblatt, J.S., Hinde, R.A., Shaw, E. & Beer, C.G.. New York (NY): Academic Press, 77–100.
Galef, B.G., 1988. Imitation in animals: history, definition and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory, in Social Learning: A Comparative Approach, eds. Zentall, T.R. & Galef, B.G.. Hillsdale (NJ): Erlbaum Press, 1–28.
Galef, B.G., 1990. Tradition in animals: field observations and laboratory analysis, in Methods, Inferences, Interpretations and Explanations in the Study of Behavior, eds. Bekoff, M. & Jamieson, D.. Boulder (CO): Westview Press.
Gamble, C., 1984. Regional variation in hunter-gatherer strategy in the Upper Pleistocene of Europe, in Hominid Evolution and Community Ecology, ed. Foley, R.. London: Academic Press, 237–60.
Gamble, C., 1986. The Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gamble, C., 1987. Man the shoveler: alternative models for Middle Pleistocene colonization and occupation in northern latitudes, in The Pleistocene Old World, ed. Soffer, O.. New York (NY): Plenum Press, 81–98.
Gamble, C., 1992. Comment on ‘Dense forests, cold steppes, and the Palaeolithic settlement of Northern Europe’ by W. Roebroeks, N.J.Conrad & T. van Kolfschoten. Current Anthropology 33, 551–86.
Geist, V., 1974. On the relationship between social evolution and ecology in ungulates. American Zoobgist 14, 205‐20.
Gibbard, P.L. & Stuart, A.J., 1975. Flora and vertebrate fauna of the Barrington Beds. Geological Magazine 112, 493–501.
Gibson, K., 1991. Tools, language and intelligence: evolutionary implications. Man 26, 255–64.
Gibson, K. & Ingold, T. (eds.), 1993. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodall, J., 1973. Cultural elements in the chimpanzee community, in Precultural Primate Behaviour, ed. Menzel, E.W.. Basel: Karger, 144–84.
Gowlett, J., 1984. The mental abilities of early man: a look at some hard evidence, in Human Evolution and Community Ecology, ed. Foley, R.. London: Academic Press, 167–92.
Hall, K.R.L., 1963. Observation learning in monkeys and apes. British journal of Psychology 54, 201–26.
Hannah, A. & McGrew, W.C., 1987. Chimpanzees using stones to crack open palm oil nuts in Liberia. Primates 28, 31–46.
Hauser, M., 1988. Invention and social transmission: new data from wild vervet monkeys, in Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Experience and the Evolution of Intelligence in Monkeys, Apes and Humans, eds. Bryne, R. & Whiten, A.. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications, 327–413.
Hayes, K.J. & Hayes, C., 1952. Imitation in a home-raised chimpanzee, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 45, 450–9.
Heard, D., 1992. The effect of wolf predation and snow cover on musk-ox group size. The American Naturalist 139, 190–204.
Hohmann, G., 1988. A case of simple tool use in wild liontailed macaques. Primates 29, 565–7.
Holloway, R.L., 1969. Culture, a human domain. Current Anthropology 10, 395–412.
Holloway, R.L., 1981. Human brain evolution: a search for units, models and synthesis. Canadian Journal of Anthropology 3, 215–30.
Huffman, M.A., 1984. Stone play of Macaca fuscata in Arashiyama B troop: transmission of a non-adaptive behavior, journal of Human Evolution 13, 725–35.
Huffman, M. & Quiatt, D., 1986. Stone handling by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): implications for tool use of stone. Primates 27, 413–23.
Humphrey, N., 1976. The social function of intellect, in Growing Points in Ethology, eds. Bateson, P.P.G. & Hinde, R.A.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 303–17.
Hunt, C.O., 1992. Pollen and algal microfossils from the High Lodge clayey silts, in High Lodge: Excavations by G. de G. Sieveking 1962–68 & J. Cook 1988, eds. Ashton, N.M., Cook, J., Lewis, S.G. & Rose, J.. London: British Museum Press, 109–15.
Hutterer, K., 1977. Reinterpreting the southeast Asia Palaeolithic, in Sunda and Sahul: Prehistoric Studies in Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Australia, ed. Allen, s.J., Golson, J. & Jones, R.. London: Academic Press, 31–71.
Isaac, G.I., 1978. The food-sharing behaviour of proto-human hominids. Scientific American 238, 90–108.
Isaac, G.I., 1984. The archaeology of human origins: studies of the Lower Pleistocene in East Africa. Advances in World Archaeology 3, 1–87.
Isbell, L.A., Cheney, D.L. & Seyfarth, R.M., 1991. Group fusions and minimum group sizes in Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiopus). American Journal of Primatology 25, 57–65.
Jarman, P.J., 1974. The social organisation of antelope in relation to their ecology. Behaviour 48, 715–67.
Jolly, A., 1966. Lemur social behaviour and primate intelligence. Science 153, 501–6.
Jones, P., 1980. Experimental butchery with modern stone tools and its relevance for Palaeolithic archaeology. World Archaeology 12, 153–65.
Jones, P., 1981. Experimental implement manufacture and use: a case study from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 292, 189–95.
Kappler, P., 1987. The acquisition process of a novel behaviour pattern in a group of ring tailed lemurs. Primates 28, 225–8.
Kaufmann, J.H., 1974. The ecology and evolution of social organisation in the kangaroo family (Macropodiae). American Zoologist 14, 51–62.
Kawamura, S., 1959. The process of sub-culture propagation among Japanese macaques. Primates 24, 43–60.
Keeley, L., 1980. Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses: A Microwear Analysis. Chicago (IL): Chicago University Press.
Keeley, L. & Toth, N., 1981. Microwear polishes on early stone tools from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Nature 203, 464–5.
Kellogg, W.L. & Kellogg, N.A., 1933. The Ape and the Child. New York (NY): Whittlesey House.
Kerney, M.P., 1971. Interglacial deposits in Barnfield pit, Swanscombe, and their molluscan fauna. Journal of the Geological Society of London 127, 69–93.
King, B.J., 1991. Social information transfer in monkeys, apes, and hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 34, 97–115.
Kitahara-Frisch, J., 1978. Stone tools as indicators of linguistic abilities in early man. Kagaku Kisoran Gakkai Annals 5, 101–9.
Kummer, H., 1971. Primates Societies. Chicago (IL): Aldine.
Kummer, H. & Goodall, J., 1985. Conditions of innovative behaviour in primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 308, 203–14.
Kummer, H., Banaja, A., Abo-khatwa, A. & Ghandour, A., 1985. Differences in social behaviour between Ethiopian and Arabian Hamadryas baboons. Folia Primatologica 45, 1–8.
Leakey, L., 1953. Adam’s Ancestors. London: Metheun.
Lindly, J.M. & Clark, G.A., 1990. Symbolism and modern human origins. Current Anthropology 31, 233–57.
McGrew, W.C., 1992. Chimpanzee Material Culture: Implications for Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McGrew, W.C. & Tutin, C.E.G., 1973. Chimpanzee tool use in dental grooming. Nature 241, 477–8.
McGrew, W.C., Tutin, C.E.G. & Baldwin, P., 1979. Chimpanzees, tools, and termites: Cross-cultural comparisons of Senegal, Tanzania, and Rio Mini. Man 14, 185–214.
Meltzoff, A.N., 1988. Homo imitans, in Social Learning: A Comparative Approach, eds. Zentall, T.R. & Galef, B.G.. Hillsdale (NJ): Erlbaum Press, 319–42.
Mitchell, G.F., Penny, L.F., Shotton, F.W. & West, R.G., 1973. A correlation of Quaternary deposits in the British Isles. Geological Society of London, Special Report No. 4, 1–99.
Mithen, S.J., 1994. From domain specific to generalised intelligence: a cognitive interpretation of the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition, in The Ancient Mind, eds. Renfrew, C. & Zubrow, E.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 29–39.
Movius, H., 1948. The Lower Palaeolithic cultures of southern and eastern Asia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Association 38, 329–12.
Newcomer, M., 1970. Conjoined flakes from the Lower Loam, Barnfield pit, Swanscombe. Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute for 1970, 51–9.
Newcomer, M., 1979. Comment on The Clactonian: an independent entity or an integral part of the Acheulian’ by M.Y. Ohel. Current Anthropology 20, 685–726.
Nishida, T., 1987. Local traditions and cultural transmission, in Primate Societies, eds. Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W. & Struhsaker, T.T.. Chicago (IL): Chicago University Press, 462–74.
Nishida, T., Wrangham, R.W., Goodall, J. & Uehara, S., 1983. Local differences in plant feeding habits of chimpanzees between the Mahale Mountains and Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 12, 467–80.
Ohel, M.Y., 1979. The Clactonian: an independent entity or an integral part of the Acheulian. Current Anthropology 20, 685–726.
Piaget, J., 1962. Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. New York (NY): Norton.
Pigeot, N., 1990. Technical and social actors: flintknapping specialists at Magdalenian Etiolles. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 9, 126–41.
Pope, G., 1985. Taxonomy, dating and palaeoenvironments: the palaeoecology of early far eastern hominids. Modern Quaternary Research in South-East Asia 5, 65–80.
Pope, G., 1989. Bamboo and human evolution. Natural History 10, 49–56.
Rightmire, G.P. 1990. The Evolution of Homo erectus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roberts, M., 1986. Excavations of the Lower Palaeolithic site at Amey’s Eartham pit, Boxgrove, West Sussex. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 52, 215–45.
Roe, D., 1979. Comment on The Clactonian: an independent entity or an integral part of the Acheulian’ by M.Y. Ohel. Current Anthropology 20, 685–726.
Roe, D., 1981. The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Periods in Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Roebroeks, W., 1988. From flint scatters to early hominid behaviour: a study of Middle Palaeolithic riverside settlements at Maastricht-Belvedere. Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 21, 1–196.
Roebroeks, W., Conrad, N.J. & van Kolfschoten, T., 1992. Dense forests, cold steppes, and the Palaeolithic settlement of Northern Europe. Current Anthropology 33, 551–86.
Rogers, A.R., 1988. Does biology constrain culture? American Anthropologist 90, 818–31.
Rolland, N. & Dibble, H.L., 1990. A new synthesis of Middle Palaeolithic variability. American Antiquity 55, 480–99.
Rosdeth, L., Wrangham, R.W., Harrigan, A.M. & Smuts, B., 1991. The human community as a primate society. Current Anthropology 32, 221–54.
Sabater Pi, J., 1974. An elementary industry of the chimpanzees in the Okorobiko mountains, Rio Muri (Republic of Equatorial Guinea), West Africa. Primates 15, 351–64.
Sackett, J.R., 1982. Approaches to style in lithic archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1, 59–112.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Sevcik, R.A., Brakke, K.E., Rumbaugh, D.M. & Greenfield, P.M., 1990. Symbols: their communicative use, comprehension, and combination by bonobos (Pan paniscus), in Advances in Infancy Research, vol. 6, eds. Rovee-Collier, C. & Lipsitt, L.P.. Norwood (NJ): Ablex, 221–78.
Scheurer, J. & Thierry, B., 1985. A further food washing tradition in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates 26, 491–4.
Schilling, A., 1979. Olfactory communication in the promisians, in The Study of Promisian Behaviour, eds. Doyle, G. & Martin, R.. New York (NY): Academic Press, 461–542.
Scott, K., 1980. Two hunting episodes of Middle Palaeolithic age at La Cotte de Saint-Brelade, Jersey (Channel Islands). World Archaeology 12, 137–52.
Shennan, S., 1991. Tradition, rationality and cultural transmission, in Processual and Post-processual Archaeologies: Multiple Ways of Knowing the Past, ed. Preucel, R.. Carbondale (IL): Centre for Archaeological Investigation, University of South Illinois, 197–208.
Shotton, F.W., 1986. Glaciations in the United Kingdom. Quaternary Science Reviews 5, 293–340.
Stiles, D., 1991. Early hominid behaviour and culture tradition: raw material studies in Bed II, Olduvai Gorge. African Archaeological Review 9, 1–19.
Stopp, M., 1988. A Taphonomic Analysis of the Hoxne Site Faunal Assemblages. Unpublished M.Phil dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Stringer, C., 1993. Palaeoanthropology: secrets of the pit of the bones. Nature 362, 501–2.
Stringer, C. & Gamble, C., 1993. In Search of the Neanderthals. London: Thames & Hudson.
Stringer, C., Howell, F.C. & Melentis, J.K., 1979. The significance of the fossil hominid skull from Petralona, Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science 6(3), 235–53.
Stuart, A.J., 1982. Pleistocene Vertebrates in the British Isles. New York (NY): Longman.
Svoboda, J., 1987. Lithic industries of the Arago, Vértesszöllös, and Bilzingsleben hominids: comparisons and evolutionary interpretation. Current Anthropology 28, 219–27.
Svobada, J., 1992. Comment on ‘Dense forests, cold steppes, and the Palaeolithic settlement of Northern Europe’ by W. Roebroeks, N.J. Conrad & T. van Kolfschoten. Current Anthropology 33, 551–86.
Tattersall, I., Delson, E. & van Couvering, J., 1988. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. New York (NY): Garland Press.
Tomasello, M., 1990. Cultural transmission in tool use and communicatory signalling of chimpanzees, in Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Developmental Perspectives, eds. Parker, S. & Gibson, K.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 274–311.
Tomasello, M., Davis-Dasilva, M., Camak, L. & Bard, K., 1987. Observational learning of tool use by young chimpanzees. Human Evolution 2, 175–83.
Toth, N., 1985. The Oldowan reassessed: a close look at early stone artefacts. Journal of Archaeological Science 12, 101–20.
Toth, N., Schick, K.D., Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Sevcik, R.A. & Rumbaugh, D.M., 1993. Pan the tool-maker: investigations into the stone tool-making and tool-using capabilities of a bonobo (Pan paniscus). Journal of Archaeological Science 20, 81–91.
Turner, A., 1992. Large carnivores and the earliest European hominids: changing determinants of resource availability during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution 22, 109–26.
Turner, C., 1970. The Middle Pleistocene deposits at Marks Tey, Essex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 257, 373–440.
Tyldesley, J., 1986. The Wolvercote Channel Handaxe Assemblage: A Comparative Study. (BAR 152.) Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
Valoch, K., 1984. Le Taubachien, sa géochronologie, paléoécologie et sa paléoethnologie. L'Anthropologie 88, 193–208.
van Shaik, C.P., 1983. Why are diurnal primates living in large groups? Behaviour 87, 120–44.
Vértes, L., 1975. The Lower Palaeolithic site of Vérteszöllös, Hungary, in Recent Archaeological Excavations in Europe, ed. Bruce-Mitford, R.. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 287–301.
Villa, P., 1983. Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Record from Southern France. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.
Villa, P., 1990. Torralba and Aridos: elephant exploitation in Middle Pleistocene Spain. Journal of Human Evolution 19, 299–309.
Villa, P., 1991. Middle Pleistocene prehistory in southwestern Europe: the state of our knowledge and ignorance. Journal of Anthropological Research 47, 193–217.
Visalberghi, E., 1987. Acquisition of nut cracking behaviour by two capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Folia Primatologica 49, 168–81.
Visalberghi, E. & Fragaszy, D., 1990. Do monkeys ape?, in Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Developmental Perspectives, eds. Parker, S. & Gibson, K.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 247–73.
Watanabe, H., 1985. The chopper-chopping tool complex of East Asia: an ethno-archaeological ecological re-examination. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 4, 1–18.
Wenban-Smith, F.F., 1989. The use of canonical variates for determination of biface manufacturing techniques at Boxgrove Lower Palaeolithic site and the behavioural implications of this technology. Journal of Archaeological Science 16, 17–26.
West, R.G., 1977. Pleistocene Geology & Biology. New York (NY): Longman.
White, F., 1992. Pygmy chimpanzee social organization: variation with party size and between study sites. American Journal of Primatology 26, 203–14.
Whiten, A., 1989. Transmission mechanisms in primate cultural evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4, 61–2.
Whiteside, G., 1985. Nut cracking by wild chimpanzees in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Primates 26, 91–4.
Whitten, P., 1987. Infants and adult males, in Primate Societies, eds. Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W. & Struhsaker, T.T.. Chicago (IL): Chicago University Press, 343–57.
Wrangham, R., 1987. Evolution of social structure, in Primate Societies, eds. Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W. & Struhsaker, T.T.. Chicago (IL): Chicago University Press, 283–96.
Wymer, J., 1968. Lower Palaeolithic Archaeology in Britain as Represented by the Thames Valley. London: John Baker.
Wymer, J., 1974. Clactonian and Acheulian industries in Britain: their character and significance. Proceedings of the Geological Association 85, 391–421.
Wymer, J., 1979. Comment on The Clactonian: an independent entity or an integral part of the Acheulian’ by M.Y. Ohel. Current Anthropology 20, 685–726.
Wymer, J., 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia. Norwich: GeoBooks.
Wymer, J., 1988. Palaeolithic archaeology and the British Quaternary sequence. Quaternary Science Reviews 7, 79–98.
Wynn, T., 1991. Tools, grammar and the archaeology of cognition. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1(2), 191–206.
Wynn, T. & Tierson, F., 1990. Regional comparison of the shapes of later Acheulian handaxes. American Anthropologist 92, 73–84.
Yamagiwa, J., Yumoto, T., Ndunda, M. & Maruhashi, T., 1988. Evidence of tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) for digging out a bee nest in the Kahuzi-Biega National park, Zaire. Primates 29, 405–11.
Yando, R., Seitz, V. & Zigler, E., 1978. Imitation: A Developmental Perspective. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Association.
Yi, S. & Clark, G.A., 1983. Observations on the Lower Palaeolithic of Northeast Asia. Current Anthropology 24, 181–202.