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Creating a Favorable Business Climate: Corporations and Radio Broadcasting, 1934 to 1954

  • Elizabeth Fones-Wolf (a1)

Abstract

Beginning in the 1930s, American corporations increasingly turned to radio for their public relations campaigns. Major firms, including Ford, Du Pont, and General Motors, sponsored network radio programs that carried messages designed to improve their image. Other large corporations funded national radio news commentators, while smaller businesses sponsored weekly or even daily local radio programs. For twenty years, radio was an important component of corporate public relations, allowing businesses to speak more directly to the public than print advertisements had. By the mid-fifties, institutional broadcasting, combined with other public relations activities, had succeeded in helping business improve its status in American society.

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1 Tedlow, Richard S., Keeping the Corporate Image: Public Relations and Business, 1900–1950 (Greenwich, Conn., 1979), 31.

2 Nye, David E., Image Worlds: Corporate Identities at General Electric, 1890–1930 (Cambridge, Mass., 1985); Marchand, Roland, Creating the Corporate Send: The Rise of Public Relations and Corporate Imagery in American Big Business (Berkeley, Calif., 1998); Bird, William, “The Making of the American Dream: Enterprise and Meaning: Sponsored Film, 1939–1949,” History Today 39 (Dee. 1989): 2430, Ewen, Stuart, PR: A Social History of Spin (New York, 1996); Also see William L. Bird, Jr.'s just released book, “Better Living”: Advertising, Media and the New Vocabulary of Business Leadership, 1935–1955 (Evanston, Ill., 1999).

3 Susman, Warren, Culture as History: The Transformation of American Society in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1984), 159; Hilmes, Michele, Radio Voices: American Broadcasting, 1922–1952 (Minneapolis, 1997).

4 Raucher, Alan R., Public Relations and Business, 1900–1929 (Baltimore, 1968); Marchand, Creating the Corporate Image; Marchand, Roland, “Where Lie the Boundaries of the Corporation? Explorations in ‘Corporate Responsibility’ in the 1930s,” Business and Economic History 26 (Fall 1997): 85; Olasky, Marvin N., Corporate Public Relations: A New Historical Perspective (Hillsdale, N.J., 1987); Ewen, PR: A Social History of Spin; Cutlip, Scott M., The Unseen Power: Public Relations, A History (Hillsdale, N.J., 1994).

5 Tedlow, Keeping the Corporate Image, 59

6 Marchand, “Where Lie the Boundaries of the Corporation?”

7 McChesney, Robert, Telecommunications, Mass Media, & Democracy: The Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928–1935 (New York, 1993); Smulyan, Susan, Selling Radio: The Commercialization of American Broadcasting, 1920–1934 (Washington and London, 1994); Marchand, Roland, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920–1940 (Berkeley, Calif, 1985), 92; Kang, Joon-Mann, “Franklin D. Roosevelt and James L. Flv: The Politics of Broadcast Regulation, 1941–1944,” Journal of American Culture 10 (Summer 1987): 23.

8 McChesney, Robert W., “Public Broadcasting in the Age of Communications Revolution,” Monthly Review (Dec. 1994): 4.

9 McChesney, Telecommunications; Barnouw, Erik, Tower in Babel: A History of Broadcasting in the United States, Volume 1—to 1933 (New York, 1966); Barnouw, Erik, The Golden Web: A History of Broadcasting in the United States, Volume 2—1933–1953 (New York, 1968), 2930; Smulyan, Selling Radio.

10 Steele, Richard W., Propaganda in an Open Society: The Roosevelt Administration and the Media, 1933–1941 (Westport, Conn., 1985), 18.

11 Ewen, PR: A Social History of Spin, 251; Steele, Propaganda in an Open Society, 17–25, 127–136; Barnouw, The Golden Web, 62–63, 115–116; Variety, 4 Jan. 1939.

12 Steele, Propaganda in an Open Society, 20–25, 127–136.

13 Variety, 19 Feb. 1936.

14 S. H. Walker and Paul Sklar, “Business Finds Its Voice,” Harpers Magazine (Jan. 1938): 122.

16 Lazarsfeld's study quoted in Stott, William, Documentary Expression and Thirties America (New York, 1973), 8082.

17 Grafton, Samuel, “Propaganda From the Right,” American Mercury (Mar. 1935): 257266; Walker and Sklar, “Business Finds Its Voice,” 122; Marchand, “Where Lie the Boundaries of the Corporation,” 87; Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul, 192–93; Barnouw, The Golden Web, 89–91; D. U. Bathrick to R. C. Patterson, 9 Feb. 1934, “General Motors to Sponsor Concert Series Over NBC,” folder 29, box 27; Press Release, 2 Oct. 1934, folder 28, box 27, National Broadcasting Company Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.; “Wheeling Steels Show,” Printers' Ink, 27 Dec. 1940, 16.

18 The high wartime excess profits tax and the Treasury's Departments decision allowing corporations to deduct advertising costs from taxable income encouraged companies to engage in institutional advertising, which helped keep brand names before the public. As a result, during the war, a barrage of ads in the most popular weekly magazines touted business' contribution to the effort and urged the preservation of the free enterprise system. “Advertising in Wartime,” New Republic, 21 Feb. 1944, 233–236; Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul, 332–33; O'Neill, William L., A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II (New York, 1993), 254–55; Blum, John Morton, V Was for Victory (New York, 1976), 115; Policyholders Service Bureau, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Community Relations: Telling the Company's Story (New York, 1949), 18; Barnouw, The Golden Web, 165–66; Golden, L. L., Only By Public Consent: American Corporations Search for Favorable Opinion (New York, 1968), 244; “Television Audience Acclaims,” U.S. Steel News (Jan. 1954): 20–21.

19 Sethi, Advocacy Advertising and Large Corporations, 7–10; Harvey Pinney, “The Radio Pastor of Dearborn,” Nation, 9 Oct. 1937, 374; “Wheeling's ‘Musical Steelmakers’ Help Make Industrial Harmony,” Sales Management, 15 July 1939, 22–24; “Wheeling Steel's Show,” Printers' Ink, 27 Dec. 1940, 16; “Wheeling Steel's Radio Program: A Family Affair,” Printers' Ink Monthly (July 1941): 14; Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul, 193.

20 Du Pont Press Release, 27 Sept. 27, 1935, box 36, Ace. 1410, Du Pont Public Affairs Department, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Del. (hereafter HML); Original Radio Script of Abraham Lincoln From the Cavalcade of America, 13 Feb. 1940, (New York, 1940), back cover; Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul, 218–23; Bird, Advertising, Media and the New Vocabulary, 66–82; Golden, Only By Public Consent, 243–46; Barnouw, The Golden Web, 89–91; Cheape, Charles W., Strictly Business: Walter Carpenter at Du Pont and General Motors (Baltimore, 1995), 127132.

21 Golden, Only By Public Consent, 243–46; Bamouw, The Golden Web, 89–91; Bird, Advertising, Media and the New Vocabulary, 98–119; Talbot Johns to James R. Angell, 4 Dec. 1939, Keith Kiggins to Station Managers?, 30 Nov. 1939, W. G. Preston to John F. Royal, 1 Dec. 1939, Talbot Johns to James R. Angell, 6 Dec 1939, folder 81, box 67, NBC Papers; Lammont Du Pont to James Angell, 12 Jan. 1940, James Angell to Lammont Du Pont, 17 Jan. 1940; W. G. Preston to James R. Angell, 28 Aug. 1940, folder 68, box 76, NBC Papers.

22 Lewis, David L., The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company (Detroit, 1976), 241–65; Nevins, Allan and Hill, Frank Emest, Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933–1962 (New York, 1962), 1554.

23 Lewis, Public Image of Henry Ford, 315–17, 326–29; “Farewell Ford,” Time, 2 Feb. 1942, 54; Nora Huey to W. J. Cameron, 11 Dec. 1939, box 17, Accession 23, Henry Ford Office Papers, Ford Motor Company Archives, Dearborn, Mich.

24 Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul, 210–211; Lewis, Public Image of Henry Ford, 326; Hutchinson, Paul, “Heretics of the Air III.—Mr. Ford's Mr. Cameron,” Christian Century, 17 Apr. 1935, 508; Cameron, William J., The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1934, 1935, 1936 (Dearborn, Mich., 1936), 1819, 38–40, 112–14, 241–43; Cameron, William J., The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1936, 1937, 1938 (Dearborn, Mich., 1938), 38, 43–48, 52–57, 82–86, 160–70; Cameron, William J., The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1940, 1941 (Dearborn, Mich., 1941), 6365.

25 Cameron, The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1934, 1935, 1936, 53, 105–106, 175, 189–92, 209; Spalding, John W., “The Radio Speaking of William John Cameron Speech Monographs 26 (Mar. 1959): 4852; “The Ford Sunday Evening Hour,” Propaganda Analysis 1 (July 1938): 57–60; Green, Thomas S., “Mr. Cameron and the Ford Hour,” Public Opinion Quarterly (Oct. 1939): 669675; Cameron, The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1936, 1937, 1938, 17–21, 30, 44, 100–103, 130–32, 258–60; Cameron, The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1940, 1941, 22–25.

26 Cameron, William J., The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1934, 1935, 1936 (Dearborn, Mich., 1936), 53; Pinney, “The Radio Pastor of Dearborn, 376; Cameron, The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Talks, 1936, 1937, 1938, 258–60.

27 Barnouw, The Golden Web, 14–15, 34; Wolfskill, George, The Revolt of the Conservatives: A History of the American Liberty League, 1934–1940 (Boston, 1962), 230–31; Burk, Robert F., The Corporate State and Broker State: The Du Tonts and American National Politics, 1925–1940 (Cambridge, Mass., 1990), 124–36, 153, 176, 202–03.

28 Variety, 1 June 1936; Chicago Industrial Worker, 18 July 1936.

29 “‘American Family Robinson’ Program Now in Third Successful Year,” World News (June 1937): 1, 5, box 156, Series I, Ace. 1411, National Association of Manufacturers Records, HML (hereafter NAM); Mrs. Geo. W. Ebert to Radio Station WWNC, 17 June 1935, box 156, Series I, Ace. 1411, NAM; N.A.M. Newsletter, 3 Nov. 1939, 8; Bird, Advertising, Media and the New Vocabulary of Business Leadership, 54–58.

30 Ewen, PR: A Social History of Spin, 317–318; “National Industrial Information Committee 1939 Campaign—Goal 81,000,000,” n.d., box 843, Series III, Ace. 1411, NAM; James P. Selvage to Noel Sargent, 2 July 1935, box 156, Series 1, Ace. 1411, NAM; For NAM's 1930s public relations campaign, see Tedlow, Keeping the Corporate Image, 60–73.

31 The American Family Robinson, scripts for Programs 1–11, “Synopsis of Succeeding Broadcasts of The American Family Robinson,’” 1 Nov. 1934, ‘“American Family Robinson’ Program Now in Third Successful Year”; Centerville Herald (published in conjunction with the radio program), n.d., box 156, Series I, Ace. 1411, NAM; Tedlow, Keeping the Corporate Image, 65.

32Defense for America, script, 21 June 1941, box 418, 22 Feb. 1941, box 419, NBC Papers; William L. Lawson to National Broadcasting Company, 20 Oct. 1941, “Plan of Operation—‘Defense for America’ Staff,” 19 Mar. 1941, folder 66, box 82, NBC Papers; Variety, 26 Feb. 1941, 26 Mar. 1941, 23 Apr. 1941.

33Defense for America,” script, 21 June 1941, box 419, NBC Papers; “In Integrated Public Relations Program for the National Association of Manufacturers,” 14 Jan. 1946,” box 110, Series I, Ace. 1411, National Industrial Information Committee, Annual Report, 1943, box 842, Series III, Ace. 1411, NAM; “Preliminary Report on National Media,” n.d., National Association of Manufacturers, Interpreting Free Enterprise to Grassroots America, pamphlet, 1944, box 845, Series III, Ace. 1411, NAM; Cliff Harrison to NIIC Staff Executives, 20 Oct. 1944, box 843, Series III, Ace. 1411, NAM.

34 Smead, Elmer L., Freedom of Speech by Radio and Television (Washington, D.C., 1959), 4557; Barnouw, The Golden Web, 29–36, 60; Steele, Propaganda in an Open Society, 128–46; John F. Royal to Richard C. Patterson, 8 Aug. 1934, folder 29, box 25; R. C. Patterson to Gilman, 8 Aug. 1935, folder 57, box 35, NBC Papers; Frank M. Russell to R. C. Patterson, 26 Oct. 1934, John F. Royal to Frank Mason, 7 June 1934, folder 29, box 25, NBC Papers; While NBC ultimately decided against selling the Crusaders airtime, for a brief period during the spring and summer of 1935, it allowed the Crusaders to organize a series of pro-business speeches. The Crusaders, however, were not identified as the sponsors, and the series was carried as an unsponsored, network-supported sustaining program. Unsponsored or sustaining programs were broadcast by stations and the networks as part of their public service mission. L. A. Van Patten to Philips Carlin, 7 May 1934, Frank E. Mason to John F. Royal, 29 May, 17 Aug. 1934, folder 29, box 25, NBC Papers.

35 John F. Royal to William Hedges, 11 Nov. 1934, L. H. Trttterton to John F. Royal, 20 Nov. 1934, folder 31, box 23, NBC Papers; John F. Royal to Richard C. Patterson, 20 Feb. 1935, folder 40, box 39, NBC Papers; Bird, Advertising, Media, and the New Vocabulary, 28–29.

36 Edward Klauber to A. R. Barier, 14 Dec. 1939, box 2, Ace. 44, William J. Cameron Papers, Ford Motor Company Archives; Variety, 11 May 1938.

37 Barnouw, The Golden Web, 14–15; Lenox R. Lohr to Jouett Shouse, 18 June 1936, folder 34, box 43, NBC Papers.

38 New York Herald Tribune, 25 Jan. 1937; New York Evening Sun, 25 Jan. 1937; John F. Royal to David Sarnoff, 25 Jan. 1937, folder 45, box 53, NBC Papers.

39 Variety, 18 Dec. 1940; Walker and Sklar, “Business Finds Its Voice,” 123.

40 Muhlen, Norbert, “The Canned Opinion Industry,” Common Sense (Oct. 1945): 911; Muhlen, Norbert, “Radio: Political Threat or Promise?: The Networks' Influence on the Public Mind,” Commentary (Mar. 1947): 203; Fang, Irving, Those Radio Commentators! (Ames, Iowa, 1977), 314; Culbert, David Holbrook, News for Everyman: Radio and Foreign Affairs in Thirties America (Westport, Conn., 1976), 1428; Chester, Giraud, “The Radio Commentaries of H. V. Kaltenborn: A Case Study in Persuasion” (Ph.D diss., University of Wisconsin, 1947), 22.

41 Culbert, News for Everyman, 34–59; Fang, Those Radio Commentators!, 107–118.

42 Cutlip, The Unseen Power, 471; Moore, Colleen Ann, “The National Association of Manufacturers: The Voice of Industry and the Free Enterprise Campaign in the Schools, 1929–1949 (Ph.D. diss., University of Akron, 1985), 304; “L'Affaire Sokolsky,” New Republic, 3 Aug. 1938, 360; “Self-Evident Subtlety,” Time, 1 Aug. 1938, 22; Appelbaum, Alan Lee, “George E. Sokolsky: A Political Journalist in Retrospect” (Master's thesis, Ohio University, 1963), 3542; Miller, Karen S., “Amplifying the Voice of Business: Hill and Knowlton's Influence on Political, Public, and Media Discourse in Postwar America” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1993), 54.

43 Fang, Those Radio Commentators!, 35–38, 202–210; Culbert, News for Everyman, 153–172; Muhlen, “The Canned Opinion Industry,” 14; Wecter, Dixon, “Hearing is Believing: Fulton Lewis, Jr.—Upton Close,” Atlantic Monthly (Aug. 1945): 5455; Chester, Giraud, “What Constitutes Irresponsibility on the Air?—A Case StudyPublic Opinion Quarterly 13 (19491950): 7382.

44 Norbert Muhlen, “Radio: Political Threat or Promise?,” 204; Wecter, “Hearing is Believing,” 55–61; Fang, Those Radio Commentators!, 121–129.

45 Culbert, News for Everyman, 67–90; Fang, Those Radio Commentators!, 17–35; Clark, David G., “H. V. Kaltenborn and his Sponsors; Controversial Broadcasting and the Sponsor's Role,” Journal of Broadcasting 7 (Fall 1968): 309–10.

46 Clark, “H. V. Kaltenborn and his Sponsors,” 311.

47 Clark, David G., “The Dean of Commentators; A Biography of H. V. Kaltenborn” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1965), 502.

48 Clark, “The Dean of Commentators,” 499–502; Giraud, “The Radio Commentaries of H. V. Kaltenborn,” 389–427, esp. 404, 423; “Address of H. V Kaltenborn,” 3 Sept. 1942, box 164, H. V. Kaltenborn Papers, SHSW; A. A. Schechter to C. L. Menser, 23 Mar. 1942, folder 3, box 88, NBC Papers.

49 Shepard, David W., “An Experiment in Content Analysis: The Radio Addresses of Henry J. Taylor, 1945–1950” (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1953), 220–48.

50 Variety, 30 June 1943; Culbert, News for Everyman, 47–48; James B. Carey to Boake Carter, 2 Nov. 1936, Carey to Leon Levy, 29 July 1937, Carey to James Skinner, 29 July 1937, Skinner to Carey, 2 Aug. 1937, box 41, Yellow Accession, United Electrical Workers Union Archives, University of Pittsburgh; Variety, 11 Aug. 1937, 17 Nov. 17, 1937; Variety, 2 Mar. 1938.

51 Steele, Propaganda in an Open Society, 128–131; Fang, Those Radio Commentators, 113–117; C. L. Menser to Niles Trammell, 11 Sept. 1942, Frank M. Russell to Niles Tram-mell, 7 Aug. 1942, C. L. Menser to Jules Herbuveaux, 11 Sept. 1942, folder 6, box 114, NBC Papers; James F. Royal to Frank E. Mullen, 18 July 1944, Niles Trammell to Lou R. Maxon, 26 Dec. 1944, folder 36, box 114, NBC Papers; Wecter, “Hearing is Believing,” 59; Wecter, Dixon, “Hearing is Believing,” Atlantic Monthly (June 1945): 57.

52 “Commentators' Week,” Time, 6 Apr. 1942, 78; Charles Morrison and Anne Gerlovich to National Broadcasting Company, 31 Mar. 1942, Glenn Chinander to National Broadcasting Company, 17 Mar. 1942, Al Kiefner to National Broadcasting Company, 12 Apr. 1942, Frank A Bolka to National Broadcasting Company and enclosed resolution, n.d., Leonard Lageman to National Broadcasting Company, 16 Mar. 1942, folder 3, box 88, NBC Papers.

53 Clark, “H. V. Kaltenborn and his Sponsors,” 316–319; Hugo S. Peterson to Pure Oil Company, 3 Mar. 1942, Dan M. Gephart to Pure Oil Company, 8 Apr. 1942, P. F. DeMore to Henry M. Dawes, 20 Apr. 1942, and additional letters from unions in box 150, H. V. Kaltenborn Papers; F. H. Marling to Volney Andrews, 9 Mar. 1943, J. E. Jones to F. H. Marling, 26 Mar. 1943, G. F. Kielhack to F. H. Marling, 28 Apr. 1942, F. H. Marling to H. V. Kaltenbom, 29 Apr. 1942, F. H. Marling to H. V. Kaltenborn, 25 May 1942, Paul Harper to H. V. Kaltenborn, 18 May 1942, box 150, Kaltenborn Papers.

54 Henry M. Dawes to F. H. Marling, 24 Mar. 1942, H. V. Kaltenbom to Frank Ferrin, 22 Mar. 1943, Henry M. Dawes to F. H. Marling, 3 Apr. 1943, H. V. Kaltenbom to F. H. Marling, 9 Apr. 1943, box 150, Kaltenborn Papers; Chester, “The Radio Commentaries of H. V. Kaltenborn,” 410–27.

55 Wm. Burke Miller to Al Kiefner, 8 Apr. 1942, A. L. Ashby to William Burke Miller, 6 Apr. 1942, folder 3, box 88, NBC Papers; A. A. Schechter to Niles Trammell, 3 June 1940, folder 8, box 78, NBC Papers; Clark, H. V. Kaltenborn and his Sponsors,” 319; Barnouw, Erik, The Sponsor: Notes on a Modern Potentate (New York, 1978), 3235.

56 Clark, “H. V. Kaltenborn and his Sponsors,” 319.

57 Variety, 30 June 1943; Steel Labor (Apr. 1945): 8; Sussmann, Leila A., “Labor in the Radio News: An Analysis of Content,” Journalism Quarterly 22 (Sept. 1945): 207–14.

58 A. L. Ashby to William Burke Miller, 6 Apr. 1942; Barnouw, History of Broadcasting, 230.

59 James Lawrence Fly to Painters District Council, No. 36, Los Angeles, 6 Nov. 1944, T. J. Slowie to Glaydes Youden, 8 Oct. 1943, box 264, Office of the Executive Director, General Correspondence, 1927–1946; Charles R. Denny to Martin C. Mclntvre, 25 Apr. 1947, box 98, Office of the Executive Director, General Correspondence, 1947–1956, RG 173, Federal Communications Commission, National Archives, College Park, Md.

60 Corwin, Emil, “An Open Letter,” Ammunition (Feb. 1945): 8; CIO News, 26 Feb. 1945.

61 On the postwar business mobilization see Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth, Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945–1960 (Urbana, Ill., 1994); Harris, Howell John, The Right to Manage: Industrial Relations Policies of American Business in the 1940s (Madison, Wise, 1982); Tedlow, Keeping the Corporate Image, 150–153; Ewen, PR: A Social History of Spin.

62 National Industrial Information Committee, “Annual Report,” 1943, box 842, Series III, Ace. 1411, NAM; Preliminary Report on the National Media, n.d., National Industrial Information Committee, Interpreting Free Enterprise to Grass Roots America, box 845, Series III, Ace. 1411, NAM; “An Integrated Public Relations Program for the National Association of Manufacturers,” 14 Jan. 1946, Salesletter, 17 Jan. 1949, box 110, Series 1, Ace. 1411, NAM; National Association of Manufacturers, 1946 Annual Report, pamphlet, HML.

63 Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise, 158–80; Heald, Morrell, The Social Responsibilities of Business (Cleveland, 1970), 221230.

64 Public Relations News, 22 Dec. 1947; Exchange (Feb. 1949): box 122, Series 1, Ace. 1411, NAM.

65 Community Relations: Telling the Company's Story, 20.

66 Blumenthal, Frank H., “Anti-Union Publicity in the Johnstown ‘Little Steel’ Strike of 1937,” Public Opinion Quarterly (Oct. 1939): 682; Variety, 5 Dec.1945; Uphoff, Walter H., Kohler on Strike: Thirty Years of Conflict (Boston, 1966), 147, 340–41, 356. On public relations during strikes see Miller, Karen S., “National and Local Public Relations Campaigns During the 1946 Steel Strike,” Public Relations Review 21 (Winter 1995): 305323 and Cutlip, The Unseen Power, 240–247, 470–475.

67 Community Relations: Telling the Company's Story (New York, 1949), 17–18; Gardner, E. T., “Clarity is the Keynote in Our Communications,” Advanced Management (Nov. 1951): 8.

68 Higley, Hugh, “Tested Community Relations,” Public Relations Journal (Apr. 1951): 9.

69 “Low-Cost Local Radio Program,” Factory Management and Maintenance (Sept. 1949): 98–99; Exchange (Feb. 1950): box 122, Series I, Ace. 1411, NAM.

70 NAM News, 15 Dec. 1951, 20; Exchange (Sept. 1949): 5, box 122, Series I, Ace. 1411, NAM; “Putting More Life into Small-Town Community Relations,” Modern Industry, 15 Apr. 1953, 93–98; Minaker, F. C., “Novel Idea in Community Relations,” American Business (June 1953): 24; “Serve and Tell—to Make Friends for Your Plant,” Factory Management and Maintenance (Aug. 1956): 112.

71 “Successful Community Relations in Eight Companies,” Factory Management and Maintenance (Dec. 1948): 70; Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company Radio Editorials, transcripts, box 5, Youngstown Sheet And Tube Company Records, Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.

72 “Proceedings,” Committee on Cooperation With Community Leaders of the National Association of Manufacturers, 17 May 1950, box 270, Series 1, Ace. 1411, NAM.

73 Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise, 82, 94–96, 176, 272.

74 The State of the Company (Canton, Ohio, 1947), 204.

75 “The Timken Message Reaches Its Employes and the General Public by Radio,” Broadcasting, 29 Sept. 1952, 29, 108. Community Relations: Telling the Company's Story, 18.

76 The State of the Company (Canton, Ohio, 1948), esp. 98–201; The State of the Company (Canton, Ohio, 1949), esp. 90–92, 196–99, 259–64; ”The Timken Message Reaches Its Employes and the General Public bv Radio,” Broadcasting, 29 Sept. 1952, 29, 108.

77 The Fabricator (Sept. 1948); R. L. Wolfe to John S. Bugas, 24 Nov. 1948, “Detroit's Mark Adams Has Been ‘Unique,’” flyer, n.d., box 1, Mark Adams Collection, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.

78 “Abretha and the Horsewhip,” script, 8 Mar. 1949, “The Great Reform,” script, 14 Feb. 1949, box 2, Mark Adams Collection.

79 “Security Island,” script, 26 July 1949, box 2, Mark Adams Collection.

80 Golden, Only By Public Consent, 244; “Television Audience Acclaims United States Steel Hour,” 20; Arnold G. Leo to George P. Neilson, 26 Oct. 1954, box 8, Ace. 1803, Du Pont Advertising Department; Transcripts, Bohm Aluminum & Brass Corp. Advertisements, 13 Apr. 29 June 1952, box 132, NBC Papers; “NAM Scores a Hit on TV—Soft-Pedaling Commercials,” 19 Apr. 1952, 86–87; Newcomb, Robert and Sammons, Marge, Employee Communications in Action (New York, 1961), 107.

81 Summers, Harrison B., ed., A Thirty-Year History of Programs Carried on National Radio Networks in the United States, 1926–1956 (New York, 1971), 67, 62; “100% Yardstick New York Radio Audience,” 7 Dec. 1942, folder 6, box 1; 13 Dec, 1941, folder 1, box 1, 7 Dec. 1942, Monday to Friday, Apr. 1943, folder 1, box 2.

82 “Information on Cavalcade of America Prepared for Educational Directors of the National Broadcasting Company,” c. Dec. 1939, folder 41, box 75, NBC Papers; “Evidence of the Impact of ‘Cavalcade,’” c. 1956, box 8, Ace. 1803, Du Pont Advertising Department; Paul W. Sampson to W. S. Carpenter, Jr., 11 June 1942, box 832, Series II, Part 2, Walter S. Carpenter Jr. Files, Du Pont Company Records, HML; “Proposal, A Research Program for 1955–56, for E.I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co. Inc.,” Nov. 1955, box 5, Ace. 1803, Du Pont Advertising Department; F. A. C. Wardenburg to Chairman, Board of Directors, President, Members of the Executive Committee, 21 Oct. 1958, box 850, Series II, Part 2, Walter S. Carpenter Jr. Files.

83 A. R. Barbier to E. J. Condon, 21 Mar. 1940, box 20, Ace. 149, Advertising-General, Ford Motor Company Archives.

84 Walter S. Carpenter to Arthur C. Dorrance, 8 Nov. 1944, box 832, Series II, Part. 2, Waiter S. Carpenter, Jr. Files; Bruce Barton to Paul Markman, 12 Mar. 1956, box 76, Bruce Barton Papers.

85 Variett, 16 Oct. 1935; 23 Sept. 1936; 6 Oct. 1937, 11 Dec. 1940, 10 Sept. 1939, 11 Sept. 1946, 20 Aug. 1947, 10 Sept. 1947; 15 June 1949; 7 Sept. 1949; 13 Sept. 1950, 13 June 1951.

86 Variety, 22 July 1936, 2 Feb. 1938, 4 Aug. 1948, 27 Feb. 1946, 8 Oct. 1947.

87 CIO News, 16 Dec. 1946, 17 Feb. 1947, 15 Dec. 1947, 15 Mar. 1948; Guild Reporter, 11 Jan. 1946; “Mystery in a Labyrinth,” Ammunition (Jan. 1950): 6–9; “The Secret Struggle to Change Your Ideas,” Ammunition (Sept. 1955): 6–10.

88 Pennsylvania Labor News, 11 June 1948; Ford Facts, 29 May 1948 and 25 Sept. 1948.

89 Godfried, Nathan, WCFL: Chicago's Voice of Labor, 1926–1978 (Urbana, Ill., 1997); Elizabeth Fones-Wolf, “Promoting a Labor Perspective in the American Mass Media: Unions and Radio in the CIO Era, 1936–1956,” forthcoming, Media, Culture and Society.

90 Godfried, WCFL: Chicago's Voice of Labor, 251.

91 Hilmes, Michele, Radio Voices: American Broadcasting, 1922–1952 (Minneapolis, 1997).

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Creating a Favorable Business Climate: Corporations and Radio Broadcasting, 1934 to 1954

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