Adamson, Fiona B., Triadafilopoulos, Triadafilos, and Zolberg, Aristide R.. 2011. The Limits of the Liberal State: Migration, Identity and Belonging in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37 (6):843–859.
Akkerman, Tjitske. 2005. Anti-Immigration Parties and the Defence of Liberal Values: The Exceptional Case of the List Pim Fortuyn. Journal of Political Ideologies 10 (3):337–354.
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.
Antonsich, Marco, and Holland, Edward C.. 2014. Territorial Attachment in the Age of Globalization: The Case of Western Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies 21 (2):206–221.
Bale, Tim, Green-Pedersen, Christoffer, Krouwel, André, Luther, Kurt Richard, and Sitter, Nick. 2009. If You Can’t Beat Them, Join Them? Explaining Social Democratic Responses to the Challenge from the Populist Radical Right in Western Europe. Political Studies 58 (3):410–426.
Balibar, Etienne, and Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1991. Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. London and New York: Verso.
Bauböck, Rainer. 2002. Farewell to Multiculturalism? Sharing Values and Identities in Societies of Immigration. Journal of International Migration and Integration 3 (1):1–15.
Bell, Mark. 2008. The Implementation of European Anti-Discrimination Directives: Converging Towards a Common Model? The Political Quarterly 79 (1):36–44.
Benhabib, Seyla. 2002. The Claims of Culture. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Berg-Sørensen, Anders. 2010. The Politics of Lutheran Secularism: Reiterating Secularism in the Wake of the Cartoon Controversy. In Religion in the 21st Century: Challenges and Transformations, edited by Lisbet Christoffersen, Hans R. Iversen, Hanne Petersen and Margiet Warburg, 207–214. Farnham: Ashgate.
Betz, Hans-Georg, and Meret, Susi. 2009. Revisiting Lepanto: The Political Mobilization Against Islam in Contemporary Western Europe. Patterns of Prejudice 43 (3–4):313–334.
Billig, Michael, and Tajfel, Henri. 1973. Social Categorization and Similarity in Intergroup Behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology 3 (1):27–52.
Bleich, Erik. 2003. Race Politics in Britain and France: Ideas and Policymaking Since the, 1960s. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bonjour, Saskia, and Lettinga, Doutje. 2012. Political Debates on Islamic Headscarves and Civic Integration Abroad in France and the Netherlands: What Can Models Explain? Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 10 (3):260–278.
Borevi, Karin. 2010. Dimensions of Citizenship: European Integration Policies from a Scandinavian Perspective. In Diversity, Inclusion and Citizenship in Scandinavia, edited by Bo Bengtsson, Per Strömblad and Ann-Helén Bay, 19–46. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Borevi, Karin. 2014. Multiculturalism and Welfare State Integration: Swedish Model Path Dependency. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 21 (6):708–723.
Breidahl, Karen N. 2015. Three Sides of the Same Coin or Complete Opposites: Converging Scandinavian Policy Approaches or National Distinctiveness? Immigrant-Targeted Activation Policies from 1980 to 2014. Paper Presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions 2015, Warsaw, 29 March–2 April.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 1999. The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love or Outgroup Hate? Journal of Social Issues 55 (3):429–444.
Brochmann, Grete, and Seland, Idunn. 2010. Citizenship Policies and Ideas of Nationhood in Scandinavia. Citizenship Studies 14 (4):429–443.
Brubaker, Rogers, Loveman, Mara, and Stamatov, Peter. 2004. Ethnicity as Cognition. Theory and Society 33:31–64.
Bundesregierung. 2007. Der Nationale Integrationsplan. Neue Wege – Neue Chancen [The National Integration Plan: New Roads – New Chances]. Berlin: Bundesregierung.
Bundesregierung. 2008. Nationaler Integrationsplan. Erster Fortschrittsbericht [National Integration Plan. First Progress Report]. Berlin: Bundesregierung.
Canovan, Margaret. 2000. Patriotism Is Not Enough. British Journal of Political Science 30 (3):413–432.
Carol, Sarah, and Koopmans, Ruud. 2013. Dynamics of Contestation Over Islamic Religious Rights in Western Europe. Ethnicities 13 (2):165–190.
Castles, Stephen, and Miller, Mark J.. 2009. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Connor, Walker. 1972. Nation-Building or Nation-Destroying? World Politics 24 (3):319–355.10.2307/2009753
Council of the European Union. 2004. Immigrant Integration Policy in the European Union. Brussels: Council of the European Union.
Diehl, Michael. 1990. The Minimal Group Paradigm: Theoretical Explanations and Empirical Findings. European Review of Social Psychology 1 (1):263–292.
Dolezal, Martin, Helbling, Marc, and Hutter, Swen. 2010. Debating Islam in Austria, Germany and Switzerland: Ethnic Citizenship, Church–State Relations and Right-Wing Populism. West European Politics 33 (2):171–190.
Dumbrava, Costica. 2014. Nationality, Citizenship and Ethno-Cultural Membership: Preferential Membership Policies in Europe. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Duyvendak, Jan Willem, Hurenkamp, Menno, and Tonkens, Evelien. 2010. Culturalization of Citizenship in the Netherlands. In Managing Ethnic Diversity After 9/11: Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective, edited by Ariane Chebel and Simon Reich, 233–252. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Faas, Daniel. 2011. The Nation, Europe, and Migration: A Comparison of Geography, History, and Citizenship Education Curricula in Greece, Germany, and England. Journal of Curriculum Studies 43 (4):471–492.
Favell, Adrian. 2006. The Nation-Centered Perspective. In Dialogues on Migration Policy, edited by Marco Giugni and Florence Passy, 45–56. Oxford: Lexington Books.
Freeden, Michael. 1998. Is Nationalism a Distinct Ideology? Political Studies XLVI:748–765.
Freeden, Michael. 2005. Liberal Languages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gingrich, Andre, and Banks, James A., eds. 2006. Neo-Nationalism in Europe and Beyond: Perspectives from Social Anthropology. New York: Berghahn Books.
Givens, Terri E., and Case, Rhonda E.. 2014. Legislating Equality: The Politics of Antidiscrimination Policy in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goodman, Sara Wallace. 2012. Fortifying Citizenship: Policy Strategies for Civic Integration in Western Europe. World Politics 64 (4):659–698.
Goodman, Sara Wallace. 2014. Immigration and Membership Politics in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Green-Pedersen, Christoffer, and Odmalm, Pontus. 2008. Going Different Ways? Right-Wing Parties and the Immigrant Issue in Denmark and Sweden. Journal of European Public Policy 15 (3):367–381.
Greenfield, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
Halikiopoulou, Daphne, Mock, Steven, and Vasilopoulou, Sofia. 2013. The Civic Zeitgeist: Nationalism and Liberal Values in the European Radical Right. Nations and Nationalism 19 (1):107–127.
Hansen, Randall, and Koehler, Jobst. 2005. Issue Definition, Political Discourse and the Politics of Nationality Reform in France and Germany. European Journal of Political Research 44:623–644.
Harrison, Simon. 2003. Cultural Difference as Denied Resemblance: Reconsidering Nationalism and Ethnicity. Comparative Studies in Society and History 45 (2):343–361.
Home Office. 2014. Life in the United Kingdom: A Guide for New Residents. London: TSO.
Hornsey, Matthew J. 2008. Social Identity Theory and Self-Categorization Theory: A Historical Review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2:204–222.
Howard, Erica. 2005. Anti Race Discrimination Measures in Europe: An Attack on Two Fronts. European Law Journal 11 (4):468–486.
Howard, Marc Morjé. 2009. The Politics of Citizenship in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huddy, Leonie. 2001. From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examination of Social Identity Theory. Political Psychology 22 (1):127–156.
Ignatieff, Michael. 1999. Nationalism and the Narcissism of Minor Differences. In Theorizing Nationalism, edited by Ronald Beiner, 91–102. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Jacobs, Dirk, and Rea, Andrea. 2007. The End of National Models ? Integration Courses and Citizenship Trajectories in Europe. International Journal on Multicultural Societies 9 (2):264–283.
Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum. 2014. What Can and Cannot Be Willed: How Politicians Talk About National Identity and Immigrants. Nations and Nationalism 20 (3):563–583.
Johansson, Håkan, and Hvinden, Bjørn. 2007. What Do We Mean By Active Citizenship? In Citizenship in Nordic Welfare States: Dynamics of Choice, Duties and Participation in a Changing Europe, edited by Bjørn Hvinden and Håkan Johansson, 32–50. London and New York: Routledge.
Joppke, Christian. 2005. Exclusion in the Liberal State: The Case of Immigration and Citizenship Policy. European Journal of Social Theory 8 (1):43–61.
Joppke, Christian. 2007a. Transformation of Citizenship: Status, Rights, Identity. Citizenship Studies 11 (1):37–48.
Joppke, Christian. 2007b. Transformation of Immigrant Integration: Civic Integration and Antidiscrimination in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. World Politics 59:243–273.
Joppke, Christian. 2007c. Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in Western Europe. West European Politics 30 (1):1–22.
Joppke, Christian. 2008a. Comparative Citizenship : A Restrictive Turn in Europe ? Law & Ethics of Human Rights 2 (1):1–41.
Joppke, Christian. 2008b. Immigration and the Identity of Citizenship: The Paradox of Universalism. Citizenship Studies 12 (6):533–546.
Joppke, Christian. 2009. Veil: Mirror of Identity. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Joppke, Christian. 2010a. Citizenship and Immigration. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Joppke, Christian. 2010b. The Inevitable Lightening of Citizenship. European Journal of Sociology 51 (1):9–32.
Joppke, Christian. 2013. A Christian Identity for the Liberal State? The British Journal of Sociology 64 (4):597–616.
Koopmans, Ruud, Michalowski, Ines, and Waibel, Stine. 2012. Citizenship Rights for Immigrants: National Political Processes and Cross-National Convergence in Western Europe, 1980–2008. American Journal of Sociology 117 (4):1202–1245.
Koopmans, Ruud, Statham, Paul, Giugni, Marco, and Passy, Florence. 2005. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press.
Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kymlicka, Will. 2003. Being Canadian. Government and Opposition 38 (3):357–385.
Laborde, Cécile. 2002. From Constitutional to Civic Patriotism. British Journal of Political Science 32 (4):591–612.
Lægaard, Sune. 2007. Liberal Nationalism and the Nationalisation of Liberal Values. Nations and Nationalism 13 (1):37–55.
Levey, Geoffrey Brahm. 2014. Liberal Nationalism and the Australian Citizenship Tests. Citizenship Studies 18 (2):175–189.
Meer, Nasar, and Modood, Tariq. 2009. The Multicultural State We’re In: Muslims, ‘Multiculture’ and the ‘Civic Re-Balancing’ of British Multiculturalism. Political Studies 57 (3):473–497.
Michalowski, Ines. 2011. Required to Assimilate? The Content of Citizenship Tests in Five Countries. Citizenship Studies 15 (6–7):749–768.
Michalowski, Ines, and Burchardt, Marian. 2015. Islam in Europe: Cross-National Differences in Accommodation and Explanations. In After Integration: Islam, Conviviality and Contentious Politics in Europe, edited by Marian Burchardt and Ines Michalowski, 105–125. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.
Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mouritsen, Per. 2008. Political Responses to Cultural Conflict: Reflections on the Ambiguities of the Civic Turn. In Constituting Communities: Political Solutions to Cultural Conflict, edited by Per Mouritsen and Knud Erik Jørgensen, 1–30. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mouritsen, Per. 2013. The Resilience of Citizenship Traditions: Civic Integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark. Ethnicities 13 (1):86–109.
Mouritsen, Per, Faas, Daniel, Meer, Nasar, and Witte, Nynke de. 2015. Varieties of Leitkultur Debates in North-Western Europe. Paper presented at ECPR Joint Sessions, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, 29 March – 2 April.
Mouritsen, Per, and Olsen, Tore Vincents. 2013. Denmark Between Liberalism and Nationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (4):691–710.
Müller, Jan-Werner. 2007. Is Europe Converging on Constitutional Patriotism? (And If So: Is It Justified?). Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 10 (3):377–387.
Norwegian Government. 2004. Mangfold Gjennom Inkludering Og Deltakelse: Ansvar Og Frihet [Diversity through Inclusion and Participation: Responsibility and Freedom]. Oslo: Kommunal-og regionaldepartementet.
Pala, Valérie Sala. 2010. Differentialist and Universalist Antidiscrimination Policies on the Ground: How Far They Succeed, Why They Fail: A Comparison Between Britain and France. American Behavioral Scientist 53 (12):1788–1805.
Schain, Martin A. 2009. The State Strikes Back: Immigration Policy in the European Union. European Journal of International Law 20 (1):93–109.
Schiffauer, Werner. 2006. Enemies Within the Gates: The Debate About the Citizenship of Muslims in Germany. In Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach, edited by Tariq Modood, Ricardo Zapata-Barrero and Anna Triandafyllidou, 94–116. London: Routledge.
Smith, Anthony D. 2000. The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates About Ethnicity and Nationalism. Oxford and Cambridge: Polity Press.
Soysal, Yasemin N. 1994. Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
Soysal, Yasemin N. 2012. Citizenship, Immigration, and the European Social Project: Rights and Obligations of Individuality. The British Journal of Sociology 63 (1):1–21.
Suvarierol, Semin. 2012. Nation-Freezing: Images of the Nation and the Migrant in Citizenship Packages. Nations and Nationalism 18 (2):210–229.
Tajfel, Henri. 1970. Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination. Scientific American 223:96–102.
Tajfel, Henri, Billig, Michael G., Bundy, Robert P., and Flament, Claude. 1971. Social Categorization and Intergroup Behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology 1 (2):149–178.
Uberoi, Varun, and Modood, Tariq. 2013. Inclusive Britishness: A Multiculturalist Advance. Political Studies 61 (1):23–41.
Vertovec, Steven, and Wessendorf, Susanne, eds. 2010. The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices. London and New York: Routledge.
Vink, Maarten P., and de Groot, Gerard-René. 2010. Citizenship Attribution in Western Europe: International Framework and Domestic Trends. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (5):713–734.
Vink, Maarten P., and Bauböck, Rainer. 2013. Citizenship Configurations: Analysing the Multiple Purposes of Citizenship Regimes in Europe. Comparative European Politics 11 (5):621–648.
Viroli, Maurizio. 1997. For Love of Country: An Essay On Patriotism and Nationalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Zimmer, Oliver. 2003. Boundary Mechanisms and Symbolic Resources: Towards a Process-Oriented Approach to National Identity. Nations and Nationalism 9 (2):173–193.