Aghion, Philippe, Alesina, Alberto, and Trebbi, Francesco. 2004. Endogenous Political Institutions. Quarterly Journal of Economics
Ahlerup, Pelle, and Olsson, Olla. 2012. The Roots of Ethnic Diversity. Journal of Economic Growth
Akdede, Sacit Hadi. 2010. Do More Ethnically and Religiously Diverse Countries have Lower Democratization?
Albaugh, Ericka. 2014. State-Building and Multilingual Education in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aleman, Jose, and Yang, David D.. 2011. A Duration Analysis of Democratic Transitions and Authoritarian Backslides. Comparative Political Studies
Alesina, Alberto, Devleeschauwer, Arnaud, Easterly, William, Kurlat, Sergio, and Wacziarg, Romain. 2003. Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth
Alesina, Alberto, and LaFerrara, Eliana. 2005. Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance. Journal of Economic Literature
Alesina, Alberto, Baqir, Reza, and Easterly, William. 1999. Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics
Anckar, Dag. 1999. Homogeneity and Smallness: Dahl and Tufte Revisited. Scandinavian Political Studies
Angrist, Joshua D., and Pischke, Jorn-Steffen. 2009. Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist’s Companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Arriol, Leonardo R. 2013. Multi-Ethnic Coalitions in Africa: Business Financing of Opposition Election Campaigns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Atran, Scott, and Ginges, Jeremy. 2012. Religious and Sacred Imperatives in Human Conflict. Science
Barro, Robert. 1999. Determinants of Democracy. Journal of Political Economy
Beck, Nathaniel, and Katz, Jonathan. 1995. What to Do (and Not to Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data. American Political Science Review
Bernhard, Michael, Nordstrom, Timothy, and Reenock, Christopher. 2001. Economic Performance, Institutional Intermediation, and Democratic Survival. Journal of Politics
Bernhard, Michael, Nordstrom, Timothy, and Reenock, Christopher. 2004. The Legacy of Western Overseas Colonialism on Democratic Survival. International Studies Quarterly
Birnir, Johanna K. 2007. Ethnicity and Electoral Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boix, Carles, Miller, Michael, and Rosato, Sebastian. 2013. A Complete Dataset of Political Regimes, 1800–2007. Comparative Political Studies
Boix, Carles, and Svolik, Milan. 2013. The Foundations of Limited Authoritarian Government: Institutions, Commitment, and Power-Sharing in Dictatorships. The Journal of Politics
Boix, Carles, and Stokes, Susan. 2003. Endogenous Democratization. World Politics
Boone, Catherine. 2014. Property and Political Order in Africa: Land Rights and the Structure of Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Breiman, Leo, and Friedman, Jerome H.. 1985. Estimating Optimal Transformations for Multiple Regression and Correlation (with Discussion). Journal of the American Statistical Association
Breunig, Christian, Cao, Xun, and Luedtke, Adam. 2012. Global Migration and Political Regime Type: A Democratic Disadvantage. British Journal of Political Science
Brinks, Daniel, and Coppedge, Michael. 2006. Diffusion Is No Illusion: Neighbor Emulation in the Third Wave of Democracy. Comparative Political Studies
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph M., and Morrow, James D.. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Campos, Nauro F., Saleh, Ahmad, and Kuzeyev, Vitaliy. 2011. Dynamic Ethnic Fractionalization and Economic Growth. The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
Carroll, Barbara W., and Carroll, Terrence. 2000. Accommodating Ethnic Diversity in a Modernizing Democratic State: Theory and Practice in the Case of Mauritius. Ethnic and Racial Studies
Casey, Gregory P., and Owen, Ann L.. 2012. Inequality and Fractionalization. Working Paper, Hamilton College. Available from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/37118/, accessed 15 January 2016.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2004. Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Head Counts in India. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2005. Ethnic Parties and Democratic Stability. Perspectives in Politics
Charnysh, Volha, Lucas, Christopher, and Singh, Prerna. 2015. The Ties That Bind National Identity Salience and Pro-Social Behavior Toward the Ethnic Other. Comparative Political Studies
Cheibub, Jose Antonio, Gandhi, Jennifer, and Vreeland, James Raymond. 2010. Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited. Public Choice
Clague, Christopher, Gleason, Suzanne, and Knack, Stephen. 2001. Determinants of Lasting Democracy in Poor Countries: Culture, Development, and Institutions. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Colaresi, Michael, and Thompson, William. 2003. The Economic Development-Democratization Relationship: Does the Outside World Matter?
Comparative Political Studies
Coppedge, Michael. 2012. Approaching Democracy: Research Methods in Comparative Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coppedge, Michael, Alvarez, Angel, and Maldonado, Claudia. 2008. Two Persistent Dimensions of Democracy: Contestation and Inclusiveness. Journal of Politics
Coppedge, Michael, Gerring, John, Altman, David, Bernhard, Michael, Fish, Steven, Hicken, Allen, Kroenig, Matthew, Lindberg, Staffan I., McMann, Kelly, Paxton, Pamela, Semetko, Holli A., Skaaning, Svend-Erik, Staton, Jeffrey, and Teorell, Jan. 2011. Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: A New Approach. Perspectives on Politics
Crouch, Harold. 1993. Democratic Prospects in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Political Science
Dahl, Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Desmet, Klaus, Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio, and Wacziarg, Romain. 2012. The Political Economy of Ethnolinguistic Cleavages. Journal of Development Economics
Diamond, Larry, Linz, Juan J., and Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1990. Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Diamond, Larry, and Plattner, Marc, eds. 1994. Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Driessen, Michael. 2008. Review of Ethno-Linguistic Fractionalization Data Sets. APSA-CP Newsletter
Durkheim, Émile. 2001. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Oxford University Press.
Easterly, William, and Levine, Ross. 1997. Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics
Elkins, Zachary. 2000. Gradations of Democracy? Empirical Tests of Alternative Conceptualizations. American Journal of Political Science
Ellingsen, Tanja. 2000. Colorful Community or Ethnic Witches’ Brew? Multiethnicity and Domestic Conflict During and After the Cold War. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Epstein, David L., Leventoglu, Bahar, and O’Halloran, Sharyn. 2012. Minorities and Democratization. Economics and Politics
Epstein, David L., Bates, Robert, Goldstone, Jack, Kristensen, Ida, and O’Halloran, Sharyn. 2006. Democratic Transitions. American Journal of Political Science
Fearon, James D. 2003. Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country. Journal of Economic Growth
Finke, Roger, and Stark, Rodney. 1998. Religious Choice and Competition. American Sociological Review
Finkel, Steven E, Liñán, Aníbal Pérez, and Seligson, Mitchell A.. 2007. The Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building, 1990–2003. World Politics
Fish, M. Steven. 2002. Islam and Authoritarianism. World Politics
Fish, M. Steven, and Kroenig, Matthew. 2006. Diversity, Conflict and Democracy: Some Evidence from Eurasia and East Europe. Democratization
Fish, M. Steven, and Brooks, Robin S.. 2004. Does Diversity Hurt Democracy?
Journal of Democracy
Fox, Jonathan. 2002. Ethnoreligious Conflict in the Late Twentieth Century: A General Theory. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Fox, Jonathan. 2008. A World Survey of Religion and the State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gandhi, Jennifer, and Przeworski, Adam. 2007. Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Autocrats. Comparative Political Studies
Ganguly, Sumit. 2003. The Crisis of Indian Secularism. Journal of Democracy
Gasiorowski, Mark. 1995. Economic Crisis and Political Regime Change: An Event History Analysis. American Political Science Review
Geertz, Clifford. 1963. The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States. In Old Societies and New States, edited by Clifford Geertz, 105–157. New York: Free Press.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gilley, Bruce. 2006. The Meaning and Measure of State Legitimacy: Results for 72 Countries. European Journal of Political Research
Gu, Man-Li, and Bomhoff, Eduard. 2012. Religion and Support for Democracy: A Comparative Study for Catholic and Muslim Countries. Politics and Religion
Gunnemark, Erik. 1991. Countries, Peoples and their Languages: The Linguistic Handbook. Gothenburg: Lanstryckeriet.
Gupte, Pranay. 2009. Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi. New Delhi: Penguin.
Gurr, Ted. 1968. A Causal Model of Civil Strife: A Comparative Analysis Using New Indices. American Political Science Review
Gurr, Ted. 1993. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Gurr, Ted. 1994. Peoples Against States: Ethnopolitical Conflict and the Changing World System: 1994 Presidential Address. International Studies Quarterly
Gurr, Ted. 2000. Peoples Versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Habyarimana, James, Humphreys, Macartan, Posner, Daniel N., and Weinstein, Jeremy. 2009. Coethnicity: Diversity and the Dilemmas of Collective Action. New York: Russell Sage.
Hadenius, Axel. 1992. Democracy and Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hardgrave, Robert L. 1993. India: The Dilemmas of Diversity. Journal of Democracy
Harrison, Selig S. 1960. India: The Most Dangerous Decades. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hassner, Rone E. 2003. To Halve and To Hold: Conflicts Over Sacred Space and the Problem of Indivisibility. Security Studies
Hechter, Michael. 2009. Alien Rule and its Discontents. American Behavioral Scientist
Hegre, Havard, and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2006. Sensitivity Analysis of Empirical Results on Civil War Onset. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Howell, Susan E., and Fagan, Deborah. 1988. Race and Trust in Government: Testing the Political Reality Model. Public Opinion Quarterly
Iannaccone, Laurence R. 1991. The Consequences of Religious Market Structure: Adam Smith and the Economics of Religion. Rationality and Society
Jackson, Robert H., and Rosberg, Carl G.. 1984. Popular Legitimacy in African Multi-Ethnic States. The Journal of Modern African Studies
Jensen, Carsten, and Skaaning, Svend-Erik. 2012. Modernization, Ethnic Fractionalization, and Democracy. Democratization
Kedourie, Elie. 1960. Nationalism. London: Praeger.
Kim, Myunghee. 2008. Spiritual Values, Religious Practices, and Democratic Attitudes. Politics and Religion
King, Gary, Honaker, James, Joseph, Anne, and Scheve, Kenneth. 2001. Analyzing Incomplete Political Science Data: An Alternative Algorithm for Multiple Imputation. American Political Science Review
Koopmans, Ruud, eds. 2005. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe
Vol. 25. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
La Porta, Rafael, Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio, Shleifer, Andrei, and Vishny, Robert W.. 1999. The Quality of Government. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization
Levi, Margaret, and Stoker, Laura. 2000. Political Trust and Trustworthiness. Annual Review of Political Science
Lieberman, Evan S. 2009. Boundaries of Contagion: How Ethnic Politics have Shaped Government Responses to AIDS. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lieberman, Evan S., and Singh, Prerna. 2012. Conceptualizing and Measuring Ethnic Politics: An Institutional Complement to Demographic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Approaches. Studies in Comparative Political Development
Lijphart, Arend. 1969. Consociational Democracy. World Politics
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1996. The Puzzle of Indian Democracy: A Consociational Interpretation. The American Political Science Review
Lijphart, Arend. 2004. Constitutional Design for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy
Lowi, Theodore. 1964. The Pleasure of the Mayor: Patronage and Power in New York City, 1898–1958. London: Collier/Macmillan.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2008. Credible Power-Sharing and the Longevity of Authoritarian Rule. Comparative Political Studies
Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marshall, Monty G., and Jaggers, Keith. 2007. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2006. Fairfax, VA: Center for Global Policy, George Mason University.
McCauley, John. 2014. The Political Mobilization of Ethnic and Religious Identities in Africa. American Political Science Review
Michalopoulos, Stelios. 2012. The Origins of Ethnolinguistic Diversity. American Economic Review
Midlarsky, Manus I. 1998. Democracy and Islam: Implications for Civilizational Conflict and the Democratic Peace. International Studies Quarterly
Mill, John Stuart. 1958 . Considerations on Representative Government. New York: Liberal Arts Press.
Mirilovic, N. 2010. The Politics of Immigration: Dictatorship, Development, and Defense. Comparative Politics
Montalvo, Jose G., and Reynal-Querol, Marta. ND. The Effect of Ethnic and Religious Conflict on Growth. Unpublished paper, Department of Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
Montalvo, Jose G., and Reynal-Querol, Marta. 2005a. Ethnic Diversity and Economic Development. Journal of Development Economics
Montalvo, Jose G., and Reynal-Querol, Marta. 2005b. Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict, and Civil Wars. American Economic Review
Myerson, Roger. 2008. The Autocrat’s Credibility Problem and Foundations of the Constitutional State. American Political Science Review
Newey, Whitney K., and West, Kenneth D.. 1987. A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix. Econometrica
Nieswiadomy, Michael, and Strazicich, Mark. 2004. Are Political Freedoms Converging?
Norris, Pippa, and Inglehart, Ronald. 2011. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. 1993. Institutions and Credible Commitment. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics
Okediji, Tade O. 2005. The Dynamics of Ethnic Fragmentation. American Journal of Economics and Sociology
Papaioannou, Elias, and Siourounis, Gregorios. 2008. Economic and Social Factors Driving the Third Wave of Democratization. Journal of Comparative Economics
Pemstein, Daniel, Stephen A, Meserve, and , James Melton.
2010. Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis of Ten Measures of Regime Type. Political Analysis
Posner, Daniel N. 2004. The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi. American Political Science Review
Posner, Daniel N. 2005. The Institutional Origins of Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael, Cheibub, Jose Antonio, and Limongi, Fernando. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Material Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, Robert D. 2007.
E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-First Century. Scandinavian Political Studies
Putterman, Louis, and Weil, David N.. 2010. Post-1500 Population Flows and the Long-Run Determinants of Economic Growth and Inequality. Quarterly Journal of Economics
Rabushka, Alvin, and Shepsle, Kenneth A.. 1972. Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Political Instability. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Reilly, Benjamin. 2000. Democracy, Ethnic Fragmentation, and Internal Conflict: Confused Theories, Faulty Data, and the ‘Crucial Case’ of Papua New Guinea. International Security
Reilly, Benjamin. 2001. Democracy in Divided Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reilly, Benjamin. 2006. Democracy and Diversity: Political Engineering in the Asia-Pacific. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reynal-Querol, Marta. 2002. Ethnicity, Political Systems, and Civil Wars. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Reynolds, Andrew, eds. 2002. The Architecture of Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ross, Michael. 2001. Does Oil Hinder Democracy?
Rummel, R.J. 1995. Democracy, Power, Genocide, and Mass Murder. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Sambanis, Nicholas. 2001. Do Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes?: A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part I). Journal of Conflict Resolution
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1950. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper & Bros.
Seul, Jeffrey. 1999. ‘Ours is the Way of God’: Religion, Identity, and Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Peace Research
Sing, Ming. 2010. Explaining Democratic Survival Globally (1946–2002). Journal of Politics
Singh, Prerna. 2010. Wellness and Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Development in Kerala, India. World Development
Singh, Prerna. 2015. Subnationalism and Social Development: A Comparative Analysis of Indian States. World Politics
Sisk, Timothy. 1996. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Smith, Ben. 2004. Oil Wealth and Regime Survival in the Developing World, 1960–1999. American Journal of Political Science
Snyder, Jack. 2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: Norton.
Sovey, Allison J., and Green, Donald P.. 2011. Instrumental Variables Estimation in Political Science: A Readers’ Guide. American Journal of Political Science
Stepan, Alfred. 2000. Religion, Democracy, and the ‘Twin Tolerations’. Journal of Democracy
Stewart, Frances. 2009. Religion Versus Ethnicity as a Source of Mobilisation: Are There Differences? CRISE Working Paper No. 70. Oxford University.
Swamy, Arun, and Gershman, John. 2003. Managing Internal Conflicts: Dominance of the State. In Asian Security Order: Instrumental and Normative Features, edited by Muthiah Alagappa, 497–535. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Teorell, Jan. 2010. Determinants of Democratization: Explaining Regime Change in the World, 1972–2006. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thomas, Hugh. 2013. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Vanhanen, Tatu. 1999. Domestic Ethnic Conflict and Ethnic Nepotism: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Peace Research
Vanhanen, Tatu. 2000. A New Dataset for Measuring Democracy, 1810–1998. Journal of Peace Research
Varshney, Ashutosh. 1998. Why Democracy Survives. Journal of Democracy
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2001. Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond. World Politics
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2007. Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict. In Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, edited by Carles Boix and Susan Stokes, 274–295. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Watts, Ronald L. 1999. Comparing Federal Systems. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Weiner, Myron. 1989. The Indian Paradox: Essays in Indian Politics. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Weingast, Barry. 1997. The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law. American Political Science Review
Wellman, James, and Tokuno, Kyoko. 2004. Is Religious Violence Inevitable?
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion
White, H. 1980. A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity. Econometrica
Wilkinson, Steven I. 2004. Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkinson, Steven I. 2009. Riots. Annual Review of Political Science
Williams, Colin. 2012. Language Policy, Territorialism, and Regional Autonomy. In The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy, edited by Bernard Spolsky, 174–202. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wimmer, Andreas. 2002. Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wimmer, Andreas, Cederman, Lars-Erik, and Min, Brian. 2006. From Empire to Nation-State: Explaining Wars in the Modern World, 1816–2001. American Sociological Review
Wimmer, Andreas, Cederman, Lars-Erik, and Min, Brian. 2009. Ethnic Politics and Armed Conflict. A Configurational Analysis of a New Global Dataset (online appendix). American Sociological Review
Wright, Joseph. 2008. Do Authoritarian Institutions Constrain? How Legislatures Affect Economic Growth and Investment. American Journal of Political Science
Young, Crawford. 1976. The Politics of Cultural Pluralism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.