Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Wartime Violence and Post-War Women's Representation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 February 2020

Dino Hadzic
Affiliation:
Department of Political Science, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Margit Tavits
Affiliation:
Department of Political Science, Washington University in St. Louis, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

How does wartime violence shape post-war women's representation? Does past violence make women more or less likely to run for office? And if they do run, are they getting elected? This article argues that violence influences women's representation in contrasting ways at these two stages. In wartime, women have more opportunities to gain leadership skills, which likely increases the number of women running for office after the war. However, past violence also increases threat perceptions among voters. This, combined with gender stereotypes about male and female politicians, likely reduces voter support for female candidates. Using pre- and post-war electoral and wartime violence data at the municipal level from Bosnia, the authors present evidence that is consistent with their argument. The results hold across a number of robustness tests, including accounting for post-war demographic gender balance and women's party list placement.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Acemoglu, D, Autor, DH and Lyle, D (2004) Women, war, and wages: the effect of female labor supply on the wage structure at midcentury. Journal of Political Economy 112, 497551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acharya, A, Blackwell, M and Sen, M (2016) Explaining causal findings without bias: detecting and assessing direct effects. American Political Science Review 110, 512529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, MJ and Swiss, L (2014) Peace accords and the adoption of electoral quotas for women in the developing world, 1990–2006. Politics and Gender 10, 3361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Annan, J et al. (2011) Civil war, reintegration, and gender in northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution 55, 877908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antić, MG and Lokar, S (2006) The Balkans: from total rejection to gradual acceptance of gender quotas. In Dahlerup, D (ed.), Women, Quotas and Politics. New York: Routledge, pp. 138167.Google Scholar
Atkeson, LR and Carrillo, N (2007) More is better: the influence of collective female descriptive representation on external efficacy. Politics and Gender 3, 79101.Google Scholar
Barnes, TD, Branton, RP and Cassese, EC (2017) A reexamination of women's electoral success in open seat elections: the conditioning effect of electoral competition. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy 38, 298317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, TD and Burchard, SM (2013) ‘Engendering’ politics: the impact of descriptive representation on women's political engagement in sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative Political Studies 46, 767790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, TD and O'Brien, DZ (2017) Defending the realm: the appointment of female defense ministers worldwide. American Journal of Political Science 62, 355368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauer, NM (2015) Emotional, sensitive, and unfit for office? Gender stereotype activation and support for female candidates. Political Psychology 36, 691708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bellows, J and Miguel, E (2009) War and local collective action in Sierra Leone. Journal of Public Economics 93, 11441157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berinsky, A (2009) In Time of War: Understanding American Public Opinion from World War II to Iraq. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berrebi, C and Klor, EF (2008) Are voters sensitive to terrorism? Direct evidence from the Israeli electorate. American Political Science Review 102, 279301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blattman, C (2009) From violence to voting: war and political participation in Uganda. American Political Science Review 103, 231247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bose, S (2002) Bosnia After Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Burrell, BC (1994) A Woman's Place Is in the House: Campaigning for Congress in the Feminist Era. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bush, SS (2011) International politics and the spread of quotas for women in legislatures. International Organization 65, 103137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buvinic, M et al. (2013) Violent conflict and gender inequality. World Bank Research Observer 28, 110138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, B, Marcus, R and Powers-Stevens, T (1996) Gender, Conflict and Development, Volume II: Case Studies (Cambodia, Rwanda, Kosovo, Algeria, Somalia, Guatemala and Eritrea). Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
Cheng, C and Tavits, M (2011) Informal influences in selecting female political candidates. Political Research Quarterly 64, 460471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darcy, R, Welch, S and Clark, J (1994) Women, Elections, and Representation, 2nd edn. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Dolan, K (2014) When Does Gender Matter? Women Candidates and Gender Stereotypes in American Elections. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eagly, AH and Karau, SJ (2002) Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review 109, 573598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Falk, E and Kenski, K (2006) Issue saliency and gender stereotypes: support for women as presidents in times of war and terrorism. Social Science Quarterly 87, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, RL (2000) Gender and congressional elections. In Rinehart, ST and Josephson, JJ (eds), Gender and American Politics: Women, Men, and the Political Process. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 227256.Google Scholar
Fuest, V (2008) ‘This is the time to get in front’: changing roles and opportunities for women in Liberia. African Affairs 107, 201224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fulton, S (2012) Running backwards and in high heels: the gendered quality gap and incumbent electoral success. Political Research Quarterly 20, 112.Google Scholar
Gadarian, SK (2010) Foreign policy at the ballot box: how citizens use foreign policy to judge and choose candidates. Journal of Politics 72, 10461062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gates, S et al. (2012) Development consequences of armed conflict. World Development 40, 17131722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Getmansky, A and Zeitzoff, T (2014) Terrorism and voting: the effect of rocket threat on voting in Israeli elections. American Political Science Review 108, 588604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilligan, M, Pasquale, B and Samii, C (2014) Civil war and social cohesion: lab-in-the-field evidence from Nepal. American Journal of Political Science 58, 604619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldin, C (1991) The role of World War II in the rise of women's employment. American Economic Review 81, 741756.Google Scholar
Grayzel, SR (1999) Women's Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France During the First World War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Hadzic, D, Tavits, M (2020), “Replication Data for: Wartime Violence and Post-War Women's Representation“, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/XERE2A, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:cyVII/HMebi2v5ejt8vmEg== [fileUNF]Google Scholar
Hadzic, D, Carlson, D and Tavits, M (2017) How exposure to violence affects ethnic voting. British Journal of Political Science. doi:10.1017/S0007123417000448.Google Scholar
Holman, MR, Merolla, JL and Zechmeister, EJ (2011) Sex, stereotypes, and security: a study of the effects of terrorist threat on assessments of female leadership. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy 32, 173192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holman, MR, Merolla, JL and Zechmeister, EJ (2016) Terrorist threat, male stereotypes, and candidate evaluations. Political Research Quarterly 69, 134147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huddy, L and Terkildsen, N (1993) The consequences of gender stereotypes for women candidates at different levels and types of office. Political Research Quarterly 46, 503525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, MM (2009) Armed conflict, international linkages, and women's parliamentary representation in developing nations. Social Problems 56, 174204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, MM and Tripp, AM (2015) Civil war and trajectories of change in women's political representation in Africa, 1985–2010. Social Forces 93, 15131540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iversen, T and Rosenbluth, F (2010) Women, Work, and Politics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Jones, MP (2005) The desirability of gender quotas: considering context and design. Politics and Gender 1, 645652.Google Scholar
Kahn, KF (1996) The Political Consequences of Being A Woman: How Stereotypes Influence the Conduct and Consequences of Political Campaigns. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Kittilson, MC (2006) Challenging Parties, Changing Parliaments: Women and Elected Office in Contemporary Western Europe. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
Koch, JW (2002) Gender stereotypes and citizens’ impressions of House candidates’ ideological orientations. American Journal of Political Science 46, 453462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krook, ML, O'Brien, DC and Swip, KM (2010) Military invasion and women's political representation. International Feminist Journal of Politics 12, 6679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lancina, B (2006) Explaining the severity of civil war. Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, 276289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawless, JL (2004) Women, war, and winning elections: gender stereotyping in the post-September 11th era. Political Research Quarterly 57, 479490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenz, G and Sahn, A (2018) Achieving Statistical Significance with Covariates and Without Transparency. Working Paper. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
Little, AC et al. (2007) Facial appearance affects voting decisions. Evolution and Human Behavior 28, 1827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lühiste, M (2015) Party gatekeepers’ support for viable female candidacy in PR-list systems. Politics and Gender 11, 89116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merolla, J, Ramos, J and Zechmeister, EJ (2007) Crisis, charisma, and consequences: evidence from the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Journal of Politics 69, 3042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merolla, J and Zechmeister, EJ (2009) Terrorist threat, leadership and the vote: evidence from three experiments. Political Behavior 31, 575601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, P and Lovenduski, J (1995) Political Recruitment: Gender, Race and Class in the British Parliament. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Paxton, P, Hughes, MM and Painter, MA II (2010) Growth in women's political representation: a longitudinal exploration of democracy, electoral system and gender quotas. European Journal of Political Research 49, 2552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, S et al. (2003) Posttraumatic growth after war: a study with former refugees and displaced persons in Sarajevo. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59, 7183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Provisional Election Commission (2000) Rules and Regulations. Sarajevo: Provisional Election Commission.Google Scholar
Rahat, G (2007) Candidate selection: the choice before the choice. Journal of Democracy 18, 157170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sambanis, N (2001) Do ethnic and nonethnic civil wars have the same causes? A theoretical and empirical inquiry (Part 1). Journal of Conflict Resolution 45, 259282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanbonmatsu, K (2002) Gender stereotypes and vote choice. American Journal of Political Science 46, 2034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarkees, M and Wayman, F (2010) Resort to War: 1816–2007. Washington, DC: CQ Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schroeder, T (2017) When security dominates the agenda: the influence of ongoing security threats on female representation. Journal of Conflict Resolution 61, 564589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwindt-Bayer, L and Mishler, W (2005) An integrated model of women's representation. Journal of Politics 67, 407428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shair-Rosenfield, S and Wood, RM (2017) Governing well after war: how improving female representation prolongs post-conflict peace. Journal of Politics 79, 9951009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skard, T and Haavio-Mannila, E (1985) Women in parliament. In Haavio-Mannila, E and Dahlerup, D (eds), Unfinished Democracy: Women in Nordic Politics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 5180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swers, M (2007) Building a reputation on national security: the impact of stereotypes related to gender and military experience. Legislative Studies Quarterly 32, 559595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tajali, M (2013) Gender quota adoption in postconflict contexts: an analysis of actors and factors involved. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy 34, 261285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tripp, AM (2015) Women and Power in Postconflict Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voors, MJ et al. (2012) Violent conflict and behavior: a field experiment in Burundi. American Economic Review 102, 941964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wängnerud, L (2009) Women in parliaments: descriptive and substantive representation. Annual Review of Political Science 12, 5169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watt, JH and van den Berg, SA (2002) Research Methods for Communication Science. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
Wood, EJ (2008) The social processes of civil war: the wartime transformation of social networks. Annual Review of Political Science 11, 539561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Hadzic and Tavits supplementary material

Online Appendix

PDF 1 MB

Hadzic and Tavits Dataset

Link

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 99
Total number of PDF views: 148 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th February 2020 - 18th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-cctwg Total loading time: 0.461 Render date: 2021-01-18T15:01:00.649Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Mon Jan 18 2021 14:56:05 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Wartime Violence and Post-War Women's Representation
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Wartime Violence and Post-War Women's Representation
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Wartime Violence and Post-War Women's Representation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *