Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to Icelandic yogurt (IR; n 15, 18 g of protein) or an iso-energetic placebo (PR; n 15, 0 g protein) immediately following resistance training (3×/week) for 8 weeks. Before and after training, lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), Activin A, myostatin (MST) and follistatin (FST)) were assessed. There were group × time interactions (P < 0·05) for body mass (IR: Δ 1, PR: Δ 0·7 kg), BMI (IR: Δ 0·3, PR: Δ 0·2 kg/m2), lean mass (IR: Δ 1·3, PR: Δ 0·6 kg), bench press (IR: Δ 4, PR: 2·3 kg), leg press (IR: Δ 4·2, PR: Δ 2·5 kg), IGF-1 (IR: Δ 0·5, Δ PR: 0·1 ng/ml), TGF-β (IR: Δ − 0·2, PR: Δ − 0·1 ng/ml), GDF15 (IR: Δ − 10·3, PR: Δ − 4·8 pg/ml), Activin A (IR: Δ − 9·8, PR: Δ − 2·9 pg/ml), MST (IR: Δ − 0·1, PR: Δ − 0·04 ng/ml) and FST (IR: Δ 0·09, PR: Δ 0·03 ng/ml), with Icelandic yogurt consumption resulting in greater changes compared with placebo. The addition of Icelandic yogurt consumption to a resistance training programme improved lean mass, strength and altered skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males compared with placebo. Therefore, Icelandic yogurt as a nutrient-dense source and cost-effective supplement enhances muscular gains mediated by resistance training and consequently may be used as a strategy for the prevention of sarcopenia.