2Sandstrom, B (2001) A framework for food-based dietary guidelines in the European Union. Public Health Nutr 4, 293–305.
3World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
4Waijers, PM, Feskens, EJ & Ocke, MC (2007) A critical review of predefined diet quality scores. Br J Nutr 97, 219–231.
5Patterson, RE, Haines, PS & Popkin, BM (1994) Diet quality index: capturing a multidimensional behavior. J Am Diet Assoc 94, 57–64.
6Kennedy, ET, Ohls, J, Carlson, S, et al. (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 1103–1108.
7Kant, AK (1996) Indexes of overall diet quality: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 785–791.
8Kant, AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615–635.
9Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 3–9.
10Manios, Y, Kourlaba, G, Grammatikaki, E, et al. (2010) Development of a diet-lifestyle quality index for young children and its relation to obesity: the Preschoolers Diet-Lifestyle Index. Public Health Nutr 13, 2000–2009.
11Feskanich, D, Rockett, HR & Colditz, GA (2004) Modifying the Healthy Eating Index to assess diet quality in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 1375–1383.
12Kranz, S, Findeis, JL & Shrestha, SS (2008) Use of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index to assess preschooler's diet quality, its sociodemographic predictors, and its association with body weight status. J Pediatr (Rio J) 84, 26–34.
13Huybrechts, I, Vereecken, C, De Bacquer, D, et al. (2010) Reproducibility and validity of a diet quality index for children assessed using a FFQ. Br J Nutr 104, 135–144.
14Manios, Y, Kourlaba, G, Grammatikaki, E, et al. (2010) Development of a lifestyle-diet quality index for primary schoolchildren and its relation to insulin resistance: the Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 1399–1406.
15De Henauw, S, Gottrand, F, De Bourdeaudhuij, I, et al. (2007) Nutritional status and lifestyles of adolescents from a public health perspective. The HELENA Project – Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence. J Public Health 15, 187–197.
16Moreno, LA, González-Gross, M, Kersting, M, et al. (2008) Assessing, understanding and modifying nutritional status, eating habits and physical activity in European adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Public Health Nutr 11, 288–299.
17Moreno, LA, De Henauw, S, González-Gross, M, et al. (2008) Design and implementation of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 5, S4–S11.
18Kaaks, RJ (1997) Biochemical markers as additional measurements in studies of the accuracy of dietary questionnaire measurements: conceptual issues. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1232S–1239S.
19Vandevijvere, S, Geelen, A, Gonzalez-Gross, M, et al. (2012) Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the HELENA study. Br J Nutr 109, 736–747.
20Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 1119–1130.
21Beghin, L, Castera, M, Manios, Y, et al. (2008) Quality assurance of ethical issues and regulatory aspects relating to good clinical practices in the HELENA Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 5, S12–S18.
22Biro, G, Hulshof, KF, Ovesen, L, et al. (2002) Selection of methodology to assess food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 2, S25–S32.
23Vereecken, CA, Covents, M, Matthys, C, et al. (2005) Young adolescents' nutrition assessment on computer (YANA-C). Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 658–667.
24Vereecken, CA, Covents, M, Sichert-Hellert, W, et al. (2008) Development and evaluation of a self-administered computerized 24-h dietary recall method for adolescents in Europe. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 5, S26–S34.
25Dehne, LI, Klemm, C, Henseler, G, et al. (1999) The German Food Code and Nutrient Data Base (BLS II.2). Eur J Epidemiol 15, 355–359.
26Haubrock, J, Hartigg, U, Souverein, O, et al. (2010) An improved statistical tool for estimating usual intake distributions: the Multiple Source Method (MSM). Arch Public Health 68, 14–15.
28VIG (2006) De actieve voedingsdriehoek: een praktische voedings- en beweeggids (The Active Food Pyramid: A Practical Guide to Diet and Physical Activity). Brussels: Vlaams Instituut voor Gezondheidspromotie (VIG).
29Belgian Health Council (2009) Voedingsaanbevelingen voor België. Herziene versie 2009 (Nutritional Recommendations for Belgium. Revised Version 2009). Brussels: Belgian Health Council.
31Gonzalez-Gross, M, Breidenassel, C, Gomez-Martinez, S, et al. (2008) Sampling and processing of fresh blood samples within a European multicenter nutritional study: evaluation of biomarker stability during transport and storage. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 5, S66–S75.
32Jacques, PF, Sulsky, SI, Sadowski, JA, et al. (1993) Comparison of micronutrient intake measured by a dietary questionnaire and biochemical indicators of micronutrient status. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 182–189.
33Bates, CJ, Rutishauser, IH, Black, AE, et al. (1979) Long-term vitamin status and dietary intake of healthy elderly subjects. 2. Vitamin C. Br J Nutr 42, 43–56.
34Jenab, M, Slimani, N, Bictash, M, et al. (2009) Biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology: applications, needs and new horizons. Hum Genet 125, 507–525.
35Bor, MV, von Castel-Roberts, KM, Kauwell, GP, et al. (2010) Daily intake of 4 to 7 microg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 571–577.
36Hvas, AM, Gravholt, CH & Nexo, E (2005) Circadian variation of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) and related markers. Clin Chem Lab Med 43, 760–764.
37Rock, CL, Swendseid, ME, Jacob, RA, et al. (1992) Plasma carotenoid levels in human subjects fed a low carotenoid diet. J Nutr 122, 96–100.
38Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Underwood, BA, et al. (1983) Vitamins A, E, and carotene: effects of supplementation on their plasma levels. Am J Clin Nutr 38, 559–566.
39Sonnenberg, LM, Quatromoni, PA, Gagnon, DR, et al. (1996) Diet and plasma lipids in women. II. Macronutrients and plasma triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women: the Framingham nutrition studies. J Clin Epidemiol 49, 665–672.
40Hodge, AM, Simpson, JA, Gibson, RA, et al. (2007) Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker of habitual dietary fat intake in an ethnically diverse cohort. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 17, 415–426.
41Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K & Drevon, CA (1996) Very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids as biomarkers for intake of fish and n-3 fatty acid concentrates. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 305–311.
42Hodson, L, Skeaff, CM & Fielding, BA (2008) Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake. Prog Lipid Res 47, 348–380.
43Baylin, A, Kim, MK, Donovan-Palmer, A, et al. (2005) Fasting whole blood as a biomarker of essential fatty acid intake in epidemiologic studies: comparison with adipose tissue and plasma. Am J Epidemiol 162, 373–381.
44Estruch, R, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA, Corella, D, et al. (2006) Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 145, 1–11.
45Mozaffarian, D (2011) The great fat debate: taking the focus off of saturated fat. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 665–666.
46Willett, WC (2011) The great fat debate: total fat and health. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 660–662.
47Uauy, R, Mize, CE & Castillo-Duran, C (2000) Fat intake during childhood: metabolic responses and effects on growth. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1354S–1360S.
48Lowik, MR, Hulshof, KF & Brussaard, JH (1999) Food-based dietary guidelines: some assumptions tested for The Netherlands. Br J Nutr 81, Suppl. 2, S143–S149.
49WHO (1998) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity Geneva 3–5 June 1997. Geneva: WHO.
50Novac, O, Matasaru, S, Tataru, S, et al. (2009) Assessment of complications of excess weight in school-age children and adolescents. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 113, 740–744.
51Vyncke, KE, Libuda, L, De, VT, et al. (2012) Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Br J Nutr 108, 2261–2273.
52Kabagambe, EK, Baylin, A, Allan, DA, et al. (2001) Application of the method of triads to evaluate the performance of food frequency questionnaires and biomarkers as indicators of long-term dietary intake. Am J Epidemiol 154, 1126–1135.
53Holick, MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266–281.
54Zhang, R & Naughton, DP (2010) Vitamin D in health and disease: current perspectives. Nutr J 9, 65.
55Selhub, J & Paul, L (2011) Folic acid fortification: why not vitamin B12 also? Biofactors 37, 269–271.
56Pepper, MR & Black, MM (2011) B12 in fetal development. Semin Cell Dev Biol 22, 619–623.
57Bjorke Monsen, AL & Ueland, PM (2003) Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in diagnosis and risk assessment from infancy to adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 7–21.
58Remig, V, Franklin, B, Margolis, S, et al. (2010) Trans fats in America: a review of their use, consumption, health implications, and regulation. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 585–592.
59Hann, CS, Rock, CL, King, I, et al. (2001) Validation of the Healthy Eating Index with use of plasma biomarkers in a clinical sample of women. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 479–486.
60Newby, PK, Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, et al. (2003) Reproducibility and validity of the Diet Quality Index Revised as assessed by use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 941–949.
61Weinstein, SJ, Vogt, TM & Gerrior, SA (2004) Healthy Eating Index scores are associated with blood nutrient concentrations in the third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 576–584.
62Neuhouser, ML, Patterson, RE, King, IB, et al. (2003) Selected nutritional biomarkers predict diet quality. Public Health Nutr 6, 703–709.
63Gerber, MJ, Scali, JD, Michaud, A, et al. (2000) Profiles of a healthful diet and its relationship to biomarkers in a population sample from Mediterranean southern France. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 1164–1171.
64Vereecken, C, Dohogne, S, Covents, M, et al. (2010) How accurate are adolescents in portion-size estimation using the computer tool Young Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment on Computer (YANA-C)? Br J Nutr 103, 1844–1850.
65 Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel (BLS) – German Nutrient Data Base (2011) http://bls.nvs2.de (accessed September 2011).
66Deharveng, G, Charrondiere, UR, Slimani, N, et al. (1999) Comparison of nutrients in the food composition tables available in the nine European countries participating in EPIC. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 60–79.