1. Kotchen, TA, Cowley, AW Jr & Frohlich, ED (2013) Salt in health and disease – a delicate balance. N Engl J Med 368, 1229–1237.
2. He, FJ & MacGregor, GA (2006) Importance of salt in determining blood pressure in children: meta-analysis of controlled trials. Hypertension 48, 861–869.
3. Ma, Y, He, FJ & MacGregor, GA (2015) High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity? Hypertension 66, 843–849.
4. Grimes, CA, Riddell, LJ, Campbell, KJ, et al. (2016) 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren. Br J Nutr 115, 1071–1079.
5. Brown, IJ, Tzoulaki, I, Candeias, V, et al. (2009) Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health. Int J Epidemiol 38, 791–813.
6. Weaver, CM (2013) Potassium and health. Adv Nutr 4, 368S–377S.
7. Baudrand, R, Campino, C, Carvajal, CA, et al. (2014) High sodium intake is associated with increased glucocorticoid production, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Clin Endocrinol 80, 677–684.
8. Folkow, B (1997) Physiological aspects of the “defence” and “defeat” reactions. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 640, 34–37.
9. Tomlinson, JW & Stewart, PM (2001) Cortisol metabolism and the role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15, 61–78.
10. Chrousos, GP (2009) Stress and disorders of the stress system. Nat Rev Endocrinol 5, 374–381.
11. Jackson, SE, Kirschbaum, C & Steptoe, A (2017) Hair cortisol and adiposity in a population-based sample of 2,527 men and women aged 54 to 87 years. Obesity 25, 539–544.
12. Heffelfinger, AK & Newcomer, JW (2001) Glucocorticoid effects on memory function over the human life span. Dev Psychopathol 13, 491–513.
13. Stetler, C & Miller, GE (2011) Depression and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal activation: a quantitative summary of four decades of research. Psychosom Med 73, 114–126.
14. Papafotiou, C, Christaki, E, van den Akker, EL, et al. (2017) Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls. Stress 20, 217–222.
15. Wambach, G, Bleienheuft, C & Bonner, G (1986) Sodium loading raises urinary cortisol in man. J Endocrinol Invest 9, 257–259.
16. Litchfield, WR, Hunt, SC, Jeunemaitre, X, et al. (1998) Increased urinary free cortisol: a potential intermediate phenotype of essential hypertension. Hypertension 31, 569–574.
17. Lewicka, S, Nowicki, M & Vecsei, P (1998) Effect of sodium restriction on urinary excretion of cortisol and its metabolites in humans. Steroids 63, 401–405.
18. Chamarthi, B, Kolatkar, NS, Hunt, SC, et al. (2007) Urinary free cortisol: an intermediate phenotype and a potential genetic marker for a salt-resistant subset of essential hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 1340–1346.
19. Afsar, B & Ay, M (2014) The relationships between cortisol levels, insulin levels, and thyroid hormones with 24-h urinary sodium excretion in never treated essential hypertensive patients. ARYA Atheroscler 10, 159–163.
20. Grimes, CA, Riddell, LJ, Campbell, KJ, et al. (2017) Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study. BMJ Open 7, e016639.
21. Grimes, CA, Baxter, JR, Campbell, KJ, et al. (2015) Cross-sectional study of 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion and associated health outcomes in a convenience sample of australian primary schoolchildren: the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study protocol. JMIR Res Protoc 4, e7.
22. Honour, JW (1997) Steroid profiling. Ann Clin Biochem 34, 32–44.
23. Jaffe, M (1886) Ueber den Niederschlag, welchen Pikrinsäure in normalem Harn erzeugt und über eine neue Reaction des Kreatinins (About the precipitate, which picric acid produced in normal urine and a new reaction of creatinine). Z Physiol Chem 10, 391–400.
24. Bates, CJ, Thurnham, DI, Bingham, SA, et al. (1997) Biochemical markers of nutrient intake. In Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed., pp. 170–240 [BM Margetts and M Nelson, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.
25. World Health Organization (2010) Strategies to Monitor and Evaluate Population Sodium Consumption and Sources of Sodium in the Diet. Geneva: World Health Organization.
26. Cole, TJ, Flegal, KM, Nicholls, D, et al. (2007) Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 335, 194.
27. Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM, et al. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 1240–1243.
28. Department of Health and Ageing, National Health and Medical Research Council (2006) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
29. Reinehr, T, Kulle, A, Wolters, B, et al. (2014) Relationships between 24-hour urinary free cortisol concentrations and metabolic syndrome in obese children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99, 2391–2399.
30. Shi, L, Berkemeyer, S, Buyken, AE, et al. (2010) Glucocorticoids and body fat associated with renal uric acid and oxalate, but not calcium excretion, in healthy children. Metabolism 59, 134–139.
31. Stalder, T, Steudte-Schmiedgen, S, Alexander, N, et al. (2017) Stress-related and basic determinants of hair cortisol in humans: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 77, 261–274.
32. Usukura, M, Zhu, A, Yoneda, T, et al. (2009) Effects of a high-salt diet on adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Steroids 74, 978–982.
33. Hermans, JJ, Fischer, MA, Schiffers, PM, et al. (1999) High dietary potassium chloride intake augments rat renal mineralocorticoid receptor selectivity via 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1472, 537–549.
34. Thompson, A, Bailey, MA, Michael, AE, et al. (2000) Effects of changes in dietary intake of sodium and potassium and of metabolic acidosis on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in rat kidney. Exp Nephrol 8, 44–51.
35. Pappachan, JM, Hariman, C, Edavalath, M, et al. (2017) Cushing’s syndrome: a practical approach to diagnosis and differential diagnoses. J Clin Pathol 70, 350–359.
36. Tarullo, AR, St John, AM & Meyer, JS (2017) Chronic stress in the mother–infant dyad: maternal hair cortisol, infant salivary cortisol and interactional synchrony. Infant Behav Dev 47, 92–102.
37. Olstad, DL, Ball, K, Wright, C, et al. (2016) Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study. Stress 19, 158–167.
38. Pratt, M, Apter-Levi, Y, Vakart, A, et al. (2017) Mother–child adrenocortical synchrony; moderation by dyadic relational behavior. Horm Behav 89, 167–175.