Baird, J, Fisher, D, Lucas, P, Kleijnen, J, Roberts, H & Law, C (2005) Being big or growing fast: systematic review of size and growth in infancy and later obesity. Br Med J 331, 929.
Barros, FC, Victora, CG & Vaughan, JP (1990) The Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study 1982–1987: strategies for following up 6,000 children in a developing country. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 4, 205–220.
Benefice, E, Garnier, D, Simondon, KB & Malina, RM (2001) Relationship between stunting in infancy and growth and fat distribution during adolescence in Senegalese girls. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 50–58.
Cameron, N, Wright, MM, Griffiths, PL, Norris, SA & Pettifor, JM (2005) Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13, 131–136.
Grillol, LP, Siqueira, AF, Silva, AC, Martins, PA, Verreschi, IT & Sawaya, AL (2005) Lower resting metabolic rate and higher velocity of weight gain in a prospective study of stunted vs nonstunted girls living in the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 835–842.
Hoffman, DJ, Sawaya, AL, Verreschi, I, Tucker, KL & Roberts, SB (2000) Why are nutritionally stunted children at increased risk of obesity? Studies of metabolic rate and fat oxidation in shantytown children from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 702–707.
Jinabhai, CC, Taylor, M & Sullivan, KR (2005) Changing patterns of under- and over-nutrition in South African children-future risks of non-communicable diseases. Ann Trop Paediatr 25, 3–15.
Koziel, S & Jankowska, EA (2002) Birthweight and stature, body mass index and fat distribution of 14-year-old Polish adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health 38, 55–58.
Laitinen, J, Pietilainen, K, Wadsworth, M, Sovio, U & Jarvelin, MR (2004) Predictors of abdominal obesity among 31-y-old men and women born in Northern Finland in 1966. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 180–190.
Li, H, Stein, AD, Barnhart, HX, Ramakrishnan, U & Martorell, R (2003) Associations between prenatal and postnatal growth and adult body size and composition. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1498–1505.
Maldonado, G & Greenland, S (1993) Simulation study of confounder-selection strategies. Am J Epidemiol 138, 923–936.
Mamabolo, RL, Alberts, M, Steyn, NP, Delemarre-van de Waal, HA & Levitt, NS (2005) Prevalence and determinants of stunting and overweight in 3-year-old black South African children residing in the Central Region of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Public Health Nutr 8, 501–508.
Martins, PA, Hoffman, DJ, Fernandes, MT, Nascimento, CR, Roberts, SB, Sesso, R & Sawaya, AL (2004) Stunted children gain less lean body mass and more fat mass than their non-stunted counterparts: a prospective study. Br J Nutr 92, 819–825.
Martorell, R, Stein, AD & Schroeder, DG (2001) Early nutrition and later adiposity. J Nutr 131, 874S–880S.
Monteiro, PO, Victora, CG, Barros, FC & Monteiro, LM (2003) Birth size, early childhood growth, and adolescent obesity in a Brazilian birth cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1274–1282.
Mukuddem-Petersen, J & Kruger, HS (2004) Association between stunting and overweight among 10–15-y-old children in the North West Province of South Africa: the THUSA BANA Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 842–851.
National Center for Health Statistics (1977) NCHS Growth Curves for Children, Birth–18 Years. Washington, DC: NCHS.
Peto, R (1981) The horse-racing effect. Lancet 2, 467–468.
Popkin, BM, Richards, MK & Monteiro, CA (1996) Stunting is associated with overweight in children of four nations that are undergoing the nutrition transition. J Nutr 126, 3009–3016.
Prentice, AM (2006) The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol 35, 93–99.
Prentice, AM & Moore, SE (2005) Early programming of adult diseases in resource poor countries. Arch Dis Child 90, 429–432.
Schroeder, DG, Martorell, R & Flores, R (1999) Infant and child growth and fatness and fat distribution in Guatemalan adults. Am J Epidemiol 149, 177–185.
Tanner, JM (1990) Foetus into Man: Physical Growth from Conception to Maturity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Victora, CG & Barros, FC (2006) Cohort profile: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol 35, 237–242.
Victora, CG, Barros, FC, Lima, RC, Behague, DP, Goncalves, H, Horta, BL, Gigante, DP & Vaughan, JP (2003) The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982–2001. Cad Saude Publica 19, 1241–1256.
Walker, SP, Gaskin, PS, Powell, CA & Bennett, FI (2002) The effects of birth weight and postnatal linear growth retardation on body mass index, fatness and fat distribution in mid and late childhood. Public Health Nutr 5, 391–396.
Wells, JCK, Gigante, DP, Wright, A, Hallal, PC & Victora, CG (2003) Validation of leg-to-leg impedance for body composition assessment among Brazilian males aged 16–19 years. Int J Body Composition Res 1, 1–6.
Wells, JC & Victora, CG (2005) Indices of whole-body and central adiposity for evaluating the metabolic load of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 483–489.