Skip to main content Accessibility help

Timing of post-resistance exercise nutrient ingestion: effects on gastric emptying and glucose and amino acid responses in humans

  • Hideaki Kashima (a1), Kana Sugimura (a1), Kana Taniyawa (a1), Rumi Kondo (a1), Masako Yamaoka Endo (a1), Shota Tanimoto (a1), Toshio Kobayashi (a2), Akira Miura (a1) and Yoshiyuki Fukuba (a1)...


This study examined the effects of post-resistance exercise protein ingestion timing on the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and blood glucose (BG) and plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) responses. In all, eleven healthy participants randomly ingested 400 ml of a nutrient-rich drink containing 12 g carbohydrates and 20 g protein at rest (Con), at 5 min (post-exercise (PE)-5) or at 30 min (PE-30) after a single bout of strenuous resistance exercises. The first and second sets comprised ten repetitions at 50 % of each participant’s one-repetition maximum (1RM). The third, fourth and fifth sets comprised ten repetitions at 75 % of 1RM, and the sixth set involved repeated repetitions until exhaustion. Following ingestion of the nutrient-rich drink, we assessed the GE rate using 13C-sodium acetate breath test and evaluated two parameters according to the Tmax-calc (time when the recovery per hour is maximised), which is a standard analytical method, and T1/2 (time when the total cumulative dose of [13CO2] reaches one-half). Tmax-calc and T1/2 were slower for the PE-5 condition than for either the PE-30 or Con condition (Tmax-calc; Con: 53 (sd 7) min, PE-5: 83 (sd 16) min, PE-30: 62 (sd 9) min, T1/2; Con: 91 (sd 7) min, PE-5: 113 (sd 21) min, PE-30: 91 (sd 11) min, P<0·05). BG and BCAA responses were also slower for the PE-5 condition than for either the PE-30 or Con condition. Ingesting nutrients immediately after strenuous resistance exercise acutely delayed GE, which affected BG and plasma BCAA levels in blood circulation.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Y. Fukuba, fax +81 82 251 9806, email


Hide All
1. Thomas, DT, Erdman, KA & Burke, LM (2016) Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. J Acad Nutr Diet 116, 501528.
2. Levenhagen, DK, Gresham, JD, Carlson, MG, et al. (2001) Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280, E982E993.
3. Ivy, JL & Ferguson-Stegall, LM (2014) Nutrient timing: the means to improved exercise performance, recovery, and training adaptation. Am J Lifestyle Med 8, 246259.
4. Peters, HP, Bos, M, Seebregts, L, et al. (1999) Gastrointestinal symptoms in long-distance runners, cyclists, and triathletes: prevalence, medication, and etiology. Am J Gastroenterol 94, 15701581.
5. ter Steege, RW, Van der Palen, J & Kolkman, JJ (2008) Prevalence of gastrointestinal complaints in runners competing in a long-distance run: an internet-based observational study in 1281 subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol 43, 14771482.
6. van Wijck, K, Lenaerts, K, Grootjans, J, et al. (2012) Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and prevention. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303, G155G168.
7. de Oliveira, EP, Burini, RC & Jeukendrup, A (2014) Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Med 44, Suppl. 1, S79S85.
8. ter Steege, RW & Kolkman, JJ (2012) Review article: the pathophysiology and management of gastrointestinal symptoms during physical exercise, and the role of splanchnic blood flow. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35, 516528.
9. Perko, MJ, Nielsen, HB, Skak, C, et al. (1998) Mesenteric, coeliac and splanchnic blood flow in humans during exercise. J Physiol 513, 907913.
10. Qamar, MI & Read, AE (1987) Effects of exercise on mesenteric blood flow in man. Gut 28, 583587.
11. Otte, JA, Oostveen, E, Geelkerken, RH, et al. (2001) Exercise induces gastric ischaemia in healthy volunteers: a tonometry study. J Appl Physiol 91, 866871.
12. ter Steege, RW, Geelkerken, RH, Huisman, AB, et al. (2012) Abdominal symptoms during physical exercise and the role of gastrointestinal ischaemia: a study in 12 symptomatic athletes. Br J Sports Med 46, 931935.
13. van Wijck, K, Lenaerts, K, van Loon, LJ, et al. (2011) Exercise-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion results in gut dysfunction in healthy men. PLoS ONE 6, e22366.
14. Rehrer, NJ, Smets, A, Reynaert, H, et al. (2001) Effect of exercise on portal vein blood flow in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, 15331537.
15. Osada, T, Iwane, H, Katsumura, T, et al. (2012) Relationship between reduced lower abdominal blood flows and heart rate in recovery following cycling exercise. Acta Physiol 204, 344353.
16. Rowell, LB, Blackmon, JR, Martin, RH, et al. (1965) Hepatic clearance of indocyanine green in man under thermal and exercise stresses. J Appl Physiol 20, 384394.
17. van Wijck, K, Pennings, B, van Bijnen, AA, et al. (2013) Dietary protein digestion and absorption are impaired during acute postexercise recovery in young men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304, R356R361.
18. Kashima, H, Harada, N, Miyamoto, K, et al. (2017) Timing of post-exercise carbohydrate–protein supplementation: roles of gastrointestinal blood flow and mucosal cell damage on gastric emptying in humans. J Appl Physiol 123, 606613.
19. Bi, L & Triadafilopoulos, G (2003) Exercise and gastrointestinal function and disease: an evidence-based review of risks and benefits. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 1, 345355.
20. Horner, KM, Schubert, MM, Desbrow, B, et al. (2015) Acute exercise and gastric emptying: a meta-analysis and implications for appetite control. Sports Med 45, 659678.
21. Leiper, JB (2015) Fate of ingested fluids: factors affecting gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of beverages in humans. Nutr Rev 2, 5772.
22. Murray, R (1987) The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise. Sports Med 4, 322351.
23. Evans, GH, Watson, P, Shirreffs, SM, et al. (2016) The effect of exercise intensity on subsequent gastric emptying rate in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 26, 128134.
24. Morton, RW, McGlory, C & Phillips, SM (2015) Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Front Physiol 6, 245.
25. Evans, GH, James, LJ, Shirreffs, SM, et al. (2017) Optimizing the restoration and maintenance of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. J Appl Physiol 122, 945951.
26. Brennan, IM, Feltrin, KL, Nair, NS, et al. (2009) Effects of the phases of the menstrual cycle on gastric emptying, glycemia, plasma GLP-1 and insulin, and energy intake in healthy lean women. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297, G602G610.
27. Ghoos, YF, Maes, BD, Geypens, BJ, et al. (1993) Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids by means of a carbon-labeled octanoic acid breath test. Gastroenterology 104, 16401647.
28. Haycock, GB, Schwartz, GJ, Wisotsky, DH, et al. (1978) Geometric method for measuring body surface area: a height–weight formula validated in infants, children, and adults. J Pediatr 93, 6266.
29. Braden, B, Adams, S, Duan, LP, et al. (1995) The [13C]acetate breath test accurately reflects gastric emptying of liquids in both liquid and semisolid test meals. Gastroenterology 108, 10481055.
30. Chew, CG, Bartholomeusz, FD, Bellon, M, et al. (2003) Simultaneous 13C/14C dual isotope breath test measurement of gastric emptying of solid and liquid in normal subjects and patients: comparison with scintigraphy. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 6, 2933.
31. Sanaka, M, Yamamoto, T, Nakayama, S, et al. (2008) Reliability of the time to maximal [13CO2] excretion and the half-[13CO2] excretion time as a gastric emptying parameter: assessments using the Wagner–Nelson method. J Smooth Muscle Res 43, 201209.
32. Abdulrazzaq, YM & Ibrahim, A (2001) Determination of amino acids by ion-exchange chromatography on filter paper spotted blood samples stored at different temperatures and for different periods: comparison with capillary and venous blood. Clin Biochem 34, 399406.
33. Anderson, GH, Catherine, NL, Woodend, DM, et al. (2002) Inverse association between the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose and subsequent short-term food intake in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 10231030.
34. Samra, RA & Anderson, GH (2007) Insoluble cereal fibre reduces appetite and short-term food intake and glycemic response to food consumed 75 min later by healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 972979.
35. Silva, MT, Palheta-Junior, RC, Sousa, DF, et al. (2014) Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats. J Appl Physiol 116, 11331141.
36. Granger, DN, Holm, L & Kvietys, P (2015) The gastrointestinal circulation: physiology and pathophysiology. Compr Physiol 5, 15411583.
37. Waaler, BA, Toska, K & Eriksen, M (1999) Involvement of the human splanchnic circulation in pressor response induced by handgrip contraction. Acta Physiol Scand 166, 131136.
38. Suzuki, S, Suzuki, H, Horiguchi, K, et al. (2010) Delayed gastric emptying and disruption of the interstitial cells of Cajal network after gastric ischaemia and reperfusion. Neurogastroenterol Motil 22, 585593.
39. Herd, JA (1991) Cardiovascular response to stress. Physiol Rev 71, 305330.
40. Victor, RG, Leimbach, WN Jr, Seals, DR, et al. (1987) Effects of the cold pressor test on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans. Hypertension 9, 429436.
41. Fone, DR, Horowitz, M, Maddox, A, et al. (1990) Gastroduodenal motility during the delayed gastric emptying induced by cold stress. Gastroenterology 98, 11551161.
42. Roland, J, Dobbeleir, A, Vandevivere, J, et al. (1990) Effect of mild mental stress on solid phase gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Nucl Med Commun 11, 319326.
43. Geeraerts, B, Vandenberghe, J, Van Oudenhove, L, et al. (2005) Influence of experimentally induced anxiety on gastric sensorimotor function in humans. Gastroenterology 129, 14371444.
44. Takarada, Y, Nakamura, Y, Aruga, S, et al. (2000) Rapid increase in plasma growth hormone after low-intensity resistance exercise with vascular occlusion. J Appl Physiol 88, 6165.
45. Kato, M, Sakai, T, Yabe, K, et al. (2004) Gastric myoelectrical activity increases after moderate-intensity exercise with no meals under suppressed vagal nerve activity. Jpn J Physiol 54, 221228.
46. Wang, Y, Kondo, T, Suzukamo, Y, et al. (2010) Vagal nerve regulation is essential for the increase in gastric motility in response to mild exercise. Tohoku J Exp Med 222, 155163.
47. Marathe, CS, Rayner, CK, Jones, KL, et al. (2013) Relationships between gastric emptying, postprandial glycemia, and incretin hormones. Diabetes Care 36, 13961405.
48. Sidery, MB, Macdonald, IA & Blackshaw, PE (1994) Superior mesenteric artery blood flow and gastric emptying in humans and the differential effects of high fat and high carbohydrate meals. Gut 35, 186190.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed