1.Forsyth, S, Gautier, S & Salem, N Jr (2016) Global estimates of dietary intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in developing and developed countries. Ann Nutr Metab 68, 258–267.
2.Sioen, I, van Lieshout, L, Eilander, A, et al. (2017) Systematic review on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in European countries in light of the current recommendations - Focus on specific population groups. Ann Nutr Metab 70, 39–50.
3.Brenna, JT, Varamini, B, Jensen, RG, et al. (2007) Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1457–1464.
4.Emken, EA, Adlof, RO & Gulley, RM (1994) Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim Biophys Acta 1213, 277–288.
5.Walker, C, West, AL, Browning, LM, et al. (2015) The pattern of fatty acids displaced by epa and dha following 12 months supplementation varies between blood cell and plasma fractions. Nutrients 7, 6281–6293.
6.Carlson, SE & Colombo, J (2016) Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid nutrition in early development. Adv Pediatr 63, 453–471.
7.Hadley, KB, Ryan, AS, Forsyth, S, et al. (2016) The essentiality of arachidonic acid in infant development. Nutrients 8, 216.
8.Witkamp, RF (2018) The role of fatty acids and their endocannabinoid-like derivatives in the molecular regulation of appetite. Mol Aspects Med 64, 45–67.
9.Lewis, RA, Austen, KF & Soberman, RJ (1990) Leukotrienes and other products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Biochemistry and relation to pathobiology in human diseases. N Engl J Med 323, 645–655.
10.Tilley, SL, Coffman, TM & Koller, BH (2001) Mixed messages: modulation of inflammation and immune responses by prostaglandins and thromboxanes. J Clin Invest 108, 15–23.
11.Dennis, EA (2016) Liberating chiral lipid mediators, inflammatory enzymes, and LIPID MAPS from biological grease. J Biol Chem 291, 24431–24448.
12.Seyberth, HW, Oelz, O, Kennedy, T, et al. (1975) Increased arachidonate in lipids after administration to man: effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis. Clin Pharmacol Therapeut 18, 521–529.
13.Nelson, GJ, Schmidt, PC, Bartolini, G, et al. (1997) The effect of dietary arachidonic acid on platelet function, platelet fatty acid composition, and blood coagulation in humans. Lipids 32, 421–425.
14.Nelson, GJ, Schmidt, PC, Bartolini, G, et al. (1997) The effect of dietary arachidonic acid on plasma lipoprotein distributions, apoproteins, blood lipid levels, and tissue fatty acid composition in humans. Lipids 32, 427–433.
15.Kelley, DS, Taylor, PC, Nelson, GJ, et al. (1997) Effects of dietary arachidonic acid on human immune response. Lipids 32, 449–456.
16.Kelley, DS, Taylor, PC, Nelson, GJ, et al. (1998) Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances synthesis of eicosanoids without suppressing immune functions in young healthy men. Lipids 33, 125–130.
17.Ferretti, A, Nelson, GJ, Schmidt, PC, et al. (1997) Increased dietary arachidonic acid enhances the synthesis of vasoactive eicosanoids in humans. Lipids 32, 435–439.
18.Higgins, JP, Altman, DG, Sterne, JA & On behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group and the Cochrane Bias Methods Group (2011) Chapter 8: assessing risk of bias in included studies. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration. http://handbook.cochrane.org (accessed March 2011).
19.Barakat, R, Abou El-Ela, NE, Sharaf, S, et al. (2015) Efficacy and safety of arachidonic acid for treatment of school-age children in Schistosoma mansoni high-endemicity regions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92, 797–804.
20.De Souza, EO, Lowery, RP, Wilson, JM, et al. (2016) Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on acute anabolic signaling and chronic functional performance and body composition adaptations. PLOS ONE 11, e0155153.
21.Emken, EA, Adlof, RO, Duval, SM, et al. (1997) Influence of dietary arachidonic acid on metabolism in vivo of 8 cis, 11 cis, 14-eicosatrienoic acid in humans. Lipids 32, 441–448.
22.Hirota, S, Adachi, N, Gomyo, T, et al. (2010) Low-dose arachidonic acid intake increases erythrocytes and plasma arachidonic acid in young women. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids 83, 83–88.
23.Ishikura, Y, Ikeda, G, Akimoto, K, et al. (2009) Arachidonic acid supplementation decreases P300 latency and increases P300 amplitude of event-related potentials in healthy elderly men. Neuropsychobiology 60, 73–79.
24.Kakutani, S, Ishikura, Y, Tateishi, N, et al. (2011) Supplementation of arachidonic acid-enriched oil increases arachidonic acid contents in plasma phospholipids, but does not increase their metabolites and clinical parameters in Japanese healthy elderly individuals: a randomized controlled study. Lipids Health Dis 10, 241.
25.Kusumoto, A, Ishikura, Y, Kawashima, H, et al. (2007) Effects of arachidonate-enriched triacylglycerol supplementation on serum fatty acids and platelet aggregation in healthy male subjects with a fish diet. Br J Nutr 98, 626–635.
26.Mitchell, CJ, D’souza, RF, Figueiredo, VC, et al. (2018) Effect of dietary arachidonic acid supplementation on acute muscle adaptive responses to resistance exercise in trained men: a randomized controlled trial. J Appl Physiol 124, 1080–1091.
27.Markworth, JF, Mitchell, CJ, D’souza, RF, et al. (2018) Arachidonic acid supplementation modulates blood and skeletal muscle lipid profile with no effect on basal inflammation in resistance exercise trained men. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 128, 74–86.
28.Pantaleo, P, Marra, F, Vizzutti, F, et al. (2004) Effects of dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid on platelet and renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Sci 106, 27–34.
29.Roberts, MD, Iosia, M, Kerksick, CM, et al. (2007) Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 4, 21.
30.Schubert, R, Kitz, R, Beermann, C, et al. (2007) Influence of low-dose polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on the inflammatory response of healthy adults. Nutrition 23, 724–730.
31.Selim, S, El Sagheer, O, El Amir, A, et al. (2014) Efficacy and safety of arachidonic acid for treatment of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children in Menoufiya, Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91, 973–981.
32.Smit, EN, Koopmann, M, Boersma, ER, et al. (2000) Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 62, 335–340.
33.Thies, F, Nebe-von-Caron, G, Powell, JR, et al. (2001) Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged > 55 y. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 539–548.
34.Thies, F, Nebe-von-Caron, G, Powell, JR, et al. (2001) Dietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid or fish oil decreases T lymphocyte proliferation in healthy older humans. J Nutr 131, 1918–1927.
35.Thies, F, Miles, EA, Nebe-von-Caron, G, et al. (2001) Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 1183–1193.