Anonymous (1970) Classification of infantile malnutrition. Lancet ii, 302–303.
Bodamer, OA, Leonard, JV, Tasker, RC, Hoffmann, GF & Halliday, D (1997) Protein turnover in critically ill children. Eur J Pediatr 156, S59–S61.
Bresson, JL, Mariotti, A, Narcy, P, Ricour, C, Sachs, C & Rey, J (1990) Recovery of [ 13 C]bicarbonate as respiratory 13 CO 2 in parenterally fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr 44, 3–9.
Burger, GCE, Sandstead, HR & Drummond, J (1945) Starvation in Western Holland. Lancet ii, 282–283.
Collins, S, Myatt, M & Golden, B (1998) Dietary treatment of severe malnutrition in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 193–199.
Gabay, C & Kushner, I (1999) Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med 340, 448–454.
Garlick, PJ, McNurlan, MA & Ballmer, PE (1991) Influence of dietary protein intake on whole-body protein turnover in humans. Diabetes Care 14, 1189–1198.
Golden, MHN (2002) The development of concepts of malnutrition. J Nutr 132 2117S – 2122S.
Hasselgren, PO (2000) Catabolic response to stress and injury: implications for regulation. World J Surg 24, 1452–1459.
Hoerr, RA, Yu, YM, Wagner, DA, Burke, JF & Young, VR (1989) Recovery of 13 C in breath from NaH 13 CO 3 infused by gut and vein: effect of feeding. Am J Physiol 257, E426–E438.
Jackson, AA, Golden, MH, Byfield, R, Jahoor, F, Royes, J & Soutter, L (1983) Whole-body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in young children at intakes of protein and energy in the region of maintenance. Human Nutr Clin Nutr 37, 433–446.
Jahoor, F, Gazzard, B, Phillips, G, Sharpstone, D, Delrosario, M, Fraser, ME, Heird, W, Smith, R & Jackson, A (1999) The acute phase protein response to human immunodeficiency virus in human subjects. Am J Physiol 276, E1092–E1098.
Kadowaki, M & Kanazawa, T (2003) Amino acids as regulators of proteolysis. J Nutr 133 2052S – 2056S.
Kee, AJ, Combaret, L, Tilignac, T, Souweine, B, Aurousseau, E, Dalle, M, Taillandier, D & Attaix, D (2003) Ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent muscle proteolysis responds slowly to insulin release and refeeding in starved rats. J Physiol 546, 765–776.
Kien, CL & McClead, RE (1996) Estimation of CO 2 production in enterally fed preterm infants using an isotope dilution stable tracer technique. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 20, 389–393.
Lipscomb, FM (1945) Medical aspects of Belsen concentration camp. Lancet ii, 313–315.
Long, CL, Jeevanandam, M, Kim, BM & Kinney, JM (1977) Whole body protein synthesis and catabolism in septic man. Am J Clin Nutr 30, 1340–1344.
Manary, MJ, Brewster, DR, Broadhead, RL, Graham, SM, Hart, CA, Crowley, JR, Fjeld, CR & Yarasheski, KE (1997) Whole-body protein kinetics in children with kwashiorkor and infection: a comparison of egg white and milk as dietary sources of protein. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 643–648.
Manary, MJ, Broadhead, RL & Yarasheski, K (1998) Whole-body protein kinetics in marasmus and kwashiorkor during acute infection. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 1205–1209.
Manary, MJ, Yarasheski, KE, Berger, R, Abrams, ET, Hart, CA & Broadhead, RL (2004) Whole-body leucine kinetics and the acute phase response during acute infection in marasmic Malawian children. Pediatr Res 55, 940–956.
Manary, MJ, Yarasheski, KE, Berger, R & Broadhead, RL (2003) CO 2 production during acute infection in malnourished Malawian children. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 116–120.
Manary, MJ, Yarasheski, KE & Broadhead, RL (2002) Urea production and leucine oxidation in malnourished children with and without infection. Metabolism 51, 1418–1422.
Martin, SAM, Blaney, S, Bowman, AS & Houlihan, DF (2002) Ubiquitin-proteosome-dependent proteolysis in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ): effect of food deprivation. Pflugers Arch 445, 257–266.
Matthews, DE, Motil, KJ, Rohrbaugh, DK, Burke, JF, Young, VR & Bier, DM (1980) Measurement of leucine metabolism in man from a primed, continuous infusion of L-[1- 13 C]leucine. Am J Physiol 238, E474–E479.
Reeds, PR, Fjeld, CR & Jahoor, F (1994) Do the differences between the amino acid compositions of acute-phase and muscle proteins have a bearing on nitrogen loss in traumatic stress?. J Nutr 124, 906–910.
Scrimshaw, NS & SanGiovanni, J (1997) Synergism of nutrition, infection and immunity: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 66 464S – 477S.
Soares, MJ, Piers, LS, Shetty, PS, Jackson, AA & Waterlow, JC (1994) Whole body protein turnover in chronically undernourished individuals. Clin Sci 86, 441–446.
Spear, ML, Darmaun, D, Sager, BK, Parsons, WR & Haymond, MW (1995) Use of [ 13 C]bicarbonate for measurement of CO 2 production. Am J Physiol 268, E1123–E1127.
Szalai, AJ, Briles, DE & Volanakis, JE (1995) Human C-reactive protein is protective against fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in transgenic mice. J Immunol 155, 2557–2563.
Tissot, S, Delafosse, B, Normand, S, Bouffard, Y, Annat, G, Viale, JP, Pachiaudi, C, Riou, JP & Motin, J (1993) Recovery of [ 13 C]bicarbonate as respiratory 13 CO 2 in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 202–206.
Waterlow, JC (1992) Protein-energy Malnutrition, London: Edward Arnold.
World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization (1999) Management of Severe Malnutrition: a Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers. Geneva: WHO.