1Carr, DB, Utzschneider, KM, Hull, RL, et al. (2004) Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 53, 2087–2094.
2Vega, GL, Adams-Huet, B, Peshock, R, et al. (2006) Influence of body fat content and distribution on variation in metabolic risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 4459–4466.
3Greenlund, LJ & Nair, KS (2003) Sarcopenia – consequences, mechanisms, and potential therapies. Mech Ageing Dev 124, 287–299.
4Vandervoot, AA & Symons, TB (2001) Functional and metabolic consequences of sarcopenia. Can J Appl Physiol 26, 90–101.
5Snijder, MM, Van Dam, RM, Visser, M, et al. (2006) What aspects of body fat are particularly hazardous and how do we measure them? Int J Epidemiol 35, 83–92.
6Sun, SS & Chumlea, WC (2005) Statistical methods. In Human Body Composition, 2nd ed., pp. 151–160 [Heymsfield, SB, Lohman, TG and Wang, Z, et al., editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
7Gallagher, D, Heymsfield, SB, Heo, M, et al. (2000) Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 694–701.
8Jackson, AS, Stanforth, PR, Gagnon, J, et al. (2002) The effect of sex, age and race on estimating percentage body fat from body mass index: The Heritage Family Study. Int J Obes 26, 789–796.
9Larsson, I, Henning, B, Lindroos, AK, et al. (2006) Optimized predictions of absolute and relative amounts of body fat from weight, height, other anthropometric predictors, and age. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 252–259.
10Levitt, DG, Heymsfield, SB, Pierson, RN Jr, et al. (2007) Physiological models of body composition and human obesity. Nutr Metab (Lond) 4, 19–32.
11Gómez-Ambrosi, J, Silva, C, Catalán, V, et al. (2012) Clinical usefulness of a new equation for estimating body fat. Diabetes Care 35, 383–388.
12Mioche, L, Bidot, C & Denis, JB (2011) Body composition predicted with a Bayesian network from simple variables. Br J Nutr 105, 1265–1271.
13Mioche, L, Brigand, A, Bidot, C, et al. (2011) Fat-free mass predictions through a Bayesian network enable body composition comparisons in various populations. J Nutr 1411, 573–580.
18Mazess, RB, Barden, HS, Bisek, JP, et al. (1990) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for total body and regional bone mineral and soft tissue composition. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 1106–1112.
19Wang, ZM, Visser, M, Ma, R, et al. (1996) Skeletal muscle mass: evaluation of neutron activation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry methods. J Appl Physiol 80, 824–831.
20Sprent, P & Smeeton, NC (2001) Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, 3rd ed.Boca Raton, FL: Chapman, Hall/CRC.
21Vapnik, VN (1998) Statistical Learning Theory. New York, NY: Wiley.
22Lin, CF & Wang, SD (2002) Fuzzy support vector machines. IEEE Trans Neural Net 13, 464–471.
23Gelman, A, Carlin, JB, Stern, HS, et al. (2003) Bayesian Data Analysis, 2nd ed.Boca Raton, FL: Chaplan & Hall/CRC.
24Anderson, TW (1951) Estimating linear restrictions on regression coefficients for multivariate normal distributions. Ann Math Statist 22, 327–351.
25Röhmel, J (1996) Precision intervals for estimates of the difference in success rates for binary random variables based on the permutation principle. Biometrical J 38, 977–993.
26Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1996) Statistical method for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet i, 307–310.
27R Development Core Team (2006) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org (accessed accessed January 2011).
28Jassen, I, Heymsfield, SB, Allison, DB, et al. (2002) Body mass index and waist circumference independently contribute to prediction of nonabdominal, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral fat. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 683–688.
29Aeberli, I, Gut-Knabenhans, M, Kusche-Ammann, RS, et al. (2012) A composite score combining waist circumference and body mass index more accurately predicts body fat percentage in 6- to 13-year-old children. Eur J Nutr 52, 247–253.
30Lean, ME, Han, TS & Deurenberg, P (1996) Predicting body composition by densitometry from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 4–14.
31Bosty-Westphal, A, Danielzik, S, Geisler, C, et al. (2006) Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment. Br J Nutr 95, 1212–1220.
32Snijder, MB, Dekker, JM, Visser, M, et al. (2004) Trunk fat and leg fat have independent and opposite association with fasting and postload glucose levels: the Hoorn study. Diabetes Care 27, 372–377.
33Van Pelt, RE, Evans, EM, Schechtman, KB, et al. (2002) Contribution of total and regional fat mass to risk for cardiovascular disease in older women. J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, 1023–1028.
34Saunders, TJ, Davidson, LE, Janiszewski, PM, et al. (2009) Association of the limb fat to trunk fat ratio with makers of cardiometabolic risk in elderly men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64, 1066–1070.
35Johnstone, AM, Murison, SD, Duncan, JS, et al. (2005) Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 941–948.
36Szulc, P, Munoz, F, Marchand, F, et al. (2010) Rapid loss of appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with higher all-cause mortality in older men: the prospective MINOS study. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1227–1236.
37Lee, CG, Boyko, EJ, Nielson, CM, et al. (2011) Mortality risk in older men associated with changes in weight, lean mass, and fat mass. J Am Geriatr Soc 2, 233–240.
38Kilgour, RD, Vigano, A, Trutschnigg, B, et al. (2010) Cancer-related fatigue: the impact of skeletal muscle mass and strength in patients with advanced cancer. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 1, 177–185.
39Ellis, KJ (2000) Human body composition: in vivo methods. Physiol Rev 80, 649–680.
40Lee, SY & Gallagher, D (2008) Assessment methods in human body composition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11, 566–572.
41Wellens, R, Chumlea, WC, Guo, S, et al. (1994) Body composition in white adults by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, densitometry, and total body water. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 547–555.
42Plank, LD (2005) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8, 305–309.
43Lohman, TG & Chen, Z (2005) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In Human Body Composition, 2nd ed., pp. 63–78 [Heymsfield, SB, Lohman, TG and Wang, Z, et al., editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
44Lohman, TG (1992) Advances in Body Composition Assessment. Current Issues in Exercise Science Series (Monograph 3). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
45National Institutes of Health (2000) The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.