1 Barker, DJ (1997) The long-term outcome of retarded fetal growth. Clin Obstet Gynecol 40, 853–863.
2 Catov, JM, Newman, AB, Roberts, JM, et al. (2007) Association between infant birth weight and maternal cardiovascular risk factors in the health, aging, and body composition study. Ann Epidemiol 17, 36–43.
3 Smith, GD, Sterne, J, Tynelius, P, et al. (2005) Birth weight of offspring and subsequent cardiovascular mortality of the parents. Epidemiology 16, 563–569.
4 Richards, M, Hardy, R, Kuh, D, et al. (2002) Birthweight, postnatal growth and cognitive function in a national UK birth cohort. Int J Epidemiol 31, 342–348.
5 King, JC (2006) Maternal obesity, metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes. Annu Rev Nutr 26, 271–291.
6 Mikkelsen, TB, Osler, M, Orozova-Bekkevold, I, et al. (2006) Association between fruit and vegetable consumption and birth weight: a prospective study among 43 585 Danish women. Scand J Public Health 34, 616–622.
7 Ramon, R, Ballester, F, Aguinagalde, X, et al. (2009) Fish consumption during pregnancy, prenatal mercury exposure, and anthropometric measures at birth in a prospective mother–infant cohort study in Spain. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1047–1055.
8 Guldner, L, Monfort, C, Rouget, F, et al. (2007) Maternal fish and shellfish intake and pregnancy outcomes: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France. Environ Health 6, 33.
9 Olsen, SF, Osterdal, ML, Salvig, JD, et al. (2007) Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 976–985.
10 Mendez, MA, Plana, E, Guxens, M, et al. (2010) Seafood consumption in pregnancy and infant size at birth: results from a prospective Spanish cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health 64, 216–222.
11 Olsen, SF & Secher, NJ (2002) Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: prospective cohort study. BMJ 324, 447.
12 Halldorsson, TI, Meltzer, HM, Thorsdottir, I, et al. (2007) Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44 824 Danish pregnant women. Am J Epidemiol 166, 687–696.
13 Ramon, R, Ballester, F, Iniguez, C, et al. (2009) Vegetable but not fruit intake during pregnancy is associated with newborn anthropometric measures. J Nutr 139, 561–567.
14 Mannion, CA, Gray-Donald, K & Koski, KG (2006) Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. CMAJ 174, 1273–1277.
15 Scholl, TO, Chen, X, Sims, M, et al. (2006) Vitamin E: maternal concentrations are associated with fetal growth. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 1442–1448.
16 Lagiou, P, Mucci, L, Tamimi, R, et al. (2005) Micronutrient intake during pregnancy in relation to birth size. Eur J Nutr 44, 52–59.
17 Jacobs, DR Jr & Steffen, LM (2003) Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 508S–5013S.
18 Knudsen, VK, Orozova-Bekkevold, IM, Mikkelsen, TB, et al. (2008) Major dietary patterns in pregnancy and fetal growth. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 463–470.
19 Mikkelsen, TB, Osterdal, ML, Knudsen, VK, et al. (2008) Association between a Mediterranean-type diet and risk of preterm birth among Danish women: a prospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87, 325–330.
20 Rodriguez-Bernal, CL, Rebagliato, M, Iniguez, C, et al. (2010) Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1659–1666.
21 Trichopoulou, A & Lagiou, P (1997) Healthy traditional Mediterranean diet: an expression of culture, history, and lifestyle. Nutr Rev 55, 383–389.
22 Ribas-Fito, N, Ramon, R, Ballester, F, et al. (2006) Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 20, 403–410.
23 Chatzi, L, Plana, E, Daraki, V, et al. (2009) Metabolic syndrome in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol 170, 829–836.
24 Davey, GK, Spencer, EA, Appleby, PN, et al. (2003) EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr 6, 259–269.
25 Willett, WC, Sampson, L, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (1985) Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 122, 51–65.
26 Vioque, J, Weinbrenner, T, Asensio, L, et al. (2007) Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin C are better correlated with dietary intake in normal weight than overweight and obese elderly subjects. Br J Nutr 97, 977–986.
27 Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C, et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
28 Chatzi, L, Torrent, M, Romieu, I, et al. (2008) Mediterranean diet in pregnancy is protective for wheeze and atopy in childhood. Thorax 63, 507–513.
29 Westerway, SC, Davison, A & Cowell, S (2000) Ultrasonic fetal measurements: new Australian standards for the new millennium. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 40, 297–302.
30 Blair, EM, Liu, Y, de Klerk, NH, et al. (2005) Optimal fetal growth for the Caucasian singleton and assessment of appropriateness of fetal growth: an analysis of a total population perinatal database. BMC Pediatr 5, 13.
31 Mamelle, N, Cochet, V & Claris, O (2001) Definition of fetal growth restriction according to constitutional growth potential. Biol Neonate 80, 277–285.
32 Domingo-Salvany, A, Regidor, E, Alonso, J, et al. (2000) [Proposal for a social class measure. Working Group of the Spanish Society of Epidemiology and the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine]. Aten Primaria 25, 350–363.
33 Willet, WC & Stampfer, MJ (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologyic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 124, 17–27.
34 Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 3–9.
35 Willett, WC, Sacks, F, Trichopoulou, A, et al. (1995) Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1402S–1406S.
36 Bach, A, Serra-Majem, L, Carrasco, JL, et al. (2006) The use of indexes evaluating the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in epidemiological studies: a review. Public Health Nutr 9, 132–146.
37 England, LJ, Kendrick, JS, Wilson, HG, et al. (2001) Effects of smoking reduction during pregnancy on the birth weight of term infants. Am J Epidemiol 154, 694–701.
38 Suzuki, K, Tanaka, T, Kondo, N, et al. (2008) Is maternal smoking during early pregnancy a risk factor for all low birth weight infants? J Epidemiol 18, 89–96.
39 Vardavas, CI, Chatzi, L, Patelarou, E, et al. (2010) Smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal growth. Eur J Pediatr 169, 741–748.
40 Windham, GC, Eaton, A & Hopkins, B (1999) Evidence for an association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and birthweight: a meta-analysis and new data. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 13, 35–57.
41 Wang, X, Zuckerman, B, Pearson, C, et al. (2002) Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. JAMA 287, 195–202.
42 Palaniappan, U, Jacobs Starkey, L, O'Loughlin, J, et al. (2001) Fruit and vegetable consumption is lower and saturated fat intake is higher among Canadians reporting smoking. J Nutr 131, 1952–1958.
43 Fletcher, RH & Fairfield, KM (2002) Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. JAMA 287, 3127–3129.
44 Serra-Majem, L, Ribas, L, Garcia, A, et al. (2003) Nutrient adequacy and Mediterranean diet in Spanish school children and adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S35–S39.
45 Abrams, SA (2007) In utero physiology: role in nutrient delivery and fetal development for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 604S–607S.
46 Meltzer, HM, Brantsaeter, AL, Ydersbond, TA, et al. (2008) Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study: experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr 4, 14–27.