1Forouhi, NG & Sattar, N (2006) CVD risk factors and ethnicity – a homogeneous relationship? Atheroscler Suppl 7, 11–19.
2Osmond, C, Barker, DJ, Winter, PD, Fall, CH & Simmonds, SJ (1993) Early growth and death from cardiovascular disease in women. BMJ 307, 1519–1524.
3Kajantie, E, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ, Forsen, T, Phillips, DI & Eriksson, JG (2005) Size at birth as a predictor of mortality in adulthood: a follow-up of 350 000 person-years. Int J Epidemiol 34, 655–663.
4Gluckman, PD & Hanson, MA (2004) Living with the past: evolution, development, and patterns of disease. Science 305, 1733–1736.
5Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C & Barker, DJ (2003) Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life. Diabetologia 46, 190–194.
6McMillen, IC & Robinson, JS (2005) Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 85, 571–633.
7Brawley, L, Itoh, S, Torrens, C, Barker, A, Bertram, C, Poston, L & Hanson, M (2003) Dietary protein restriction in pregnancy induces hypertension and vascular defects in rat male offspring. Pediatr Res 54, 83–90.
8Franco, MC, Fortes, ZB, Akamine, EH, et al. (2004) Tetrahydrobiopterin improves endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress in microvessels of intrauterine undernourished rats. J Physiol 558, 239–248.
9Torrens, C, Brawley, L, Anthony, FW, Dance, CS, Dunn, R, Jackson, AA, Poston, L & Hanson, MA (2006) Folate supplementation during pregnancy improves offspring cardiovascular dysfunction induced by protein restriction. Hypertension 47, 982–987.
10Vickers, MH, Breier, BH, Cutfield, WS, Hofman, PL & Gluckman, PD (2000) Fetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and hypertension and postnatal amplification by hypercaloric nutrition. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279, E83–E87.
11Vickers, MH, Breier, BH, McCarthy, D & Gluckman, PD (2003) Sedentary behavior during postnatal life is determined by the prenatal environment and exacerbated by postnatal hypercaloric nutrition. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285, R271–R273.
12Vickers, MH, Gluckman, PD, Coveny, AH, Hofman, PL, Cutfield, WS, Gertler, A, Breier, BH & Harris, M (2005) Neonatal leptin treatment reverses developmental programming. Endocrinology 146, 4211–4216.
13Bonora, E (2006) The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Ann Med 38, 64–80.
14Busse, R & Fleming, I (2006) Vascular endothelium and blood flow. Handb Exp Pharmacol 43–78.
15Yanagisawa, M, Kurihara, H, Kimura, S, Tomobe, Y, Kobayashi, M, Mitsui, Y, Yazaki, Y, Goto, K & Masaki, T (1988) A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature 332, 411–415.
16Landmesser, U, Hornig, B & Drexler, H (2004) Endothelial function: a critical determinant in atherosclerosis? Circulation 109, II27–II33.
17Panza, JA, Casino, PR, Kilcoyne, CM & Quyyumi, AA (1993) Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 87, 1468–1474.
18Fornoni, A & Raij, L (2005) Metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction. Curr Hypertens Rep 7, 88–95.
19Mulvany, MJ & Halpern, W (1977) Contractile properties of small arterial resistance vessels in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats. Circ Res 41, 19–26.
20Lembo, G, Vecchione, C, Fratta, L, Marino, G, Trimarco, V, d'Amati, G & Trimarco, B (2000) Leptin induces direct vasodilation through distinct endothelial mechanisms. Diabetes 49, 293–297.
21Khan, IY, Taylor, PD, Dekou, V, Seed, PT, Lakasing, L, Graham, D, Dominiczak, AF, Hanson, MA & Poston, L (2003) Gender-linked hypertension in offspring of lard-fed pregnant rats. Hypertension 41, 168–175.
22Khan, I, Dekou, V, Hanson, M, Poston, L & Taylor, P (2004) Predictive adaptive responses to maternal high-fat diet prevent endothelial dysfunction but not hypertension in adult rat offspring. Circulation 110, 1097–1102.
23Taylor, PD, Khan, IY, Hanson, MA & Poston, L (2004) Impaired EDHF-mediated vasodilatation in adult offspring of rats exposed to a fat-rich diet in pregnancy. J Physiol 558, 943–951.
24Holemans, K, Gerber, R, Meurrens, K, De Clerck, F, Poston, L & Van Assche, FA (1999) Maternal food restriction in the second half of pregnancy affects vascular function but not blood pressure of rat female offspring. Br J Nutr 81, 73–79.
25Williams, SJ, Hemmings, DG, Mitchell, JM, McMillen, IC & Davidge, ST (2005) Effects of maternal hypoxia or nutrient restriction during pregnancy on endothelial function in adult male rat offspring. J Physiol 565, 125–135.
26Gerber, RT, Holemans, K, O'Brien-Coker, I, Mallet, AI, van Bree, R, Van Assche, FA & Poston, L (1999) Cholesterol-independent endothelial dysfunction in virgin and pregnant rats fed a diet high in saturated fat. J Physiol 517, 607–616.
27Rizzoni, D, Porteri, E, Guelfi, D, et al. (2001) Endothelial dysfunction in small resistance arteries of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Hypertens 19, 913–919.
28Roberts, CK, Barnard, RJ, Sindhu, RK, Jurczak, M, Ehdaie, A & Vaziri, ND (2005) A high-fat, refined-carbohydrate diet induces endothelial dysfunction and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and depresses NOS protein expression. J Appl Physiol 98, 203–210.
29Song, GY, Gao, Y, Di, YW, Pan, LL, Zhou, Y & Ye, JM (2006) High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33, 708–713.
30Franco, MC, Arruda, RM, Dantas, AP, Kawamoto, EM, Fortes, ZB, Scavone, C, Carvalho, MH, Tostes, RC & Nigro, D (2002) Intrauterine undernutrition: expression and activity of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase in male and female adult offspring. Cardiovasc Res 56, 145–153.
31Waldron, GJ, Ding, H, Lovren, F, Kubes, P & Triggle, CR (1999) Acetylcholine-induced relaxation of peripheral arteries isolated from mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Br J Pharmacol 128, 653–658.
32Jaffar, MM, Myers, DS, Hainsworth, LJ, Hainsworth, R & Drinkhill, MJ (2005) Effects of dietary salt loading on the responses of isolated rat mesenteric arteries to leptin. Am J Hypertens 18, 500–503.
33Fujitani, Y, Ueda, H, Okada, T, Urade, Y & Karaki, H (1993) A selective agonist of endothelin type B receptor, IRL 1620, stimulates cyclic GMP increase via nitric oxide formation in rat aorta. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 267, 683–689.
34Goddard, J, Johnston, NR, Hand, MF, Cumming, AD, Rabelink, TJ, Rankin, AJ & Webb, DJ (2004) Endothelin-A receptor antagonism reduces blood pressure and increases renal blood flow in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure: a comparison of selective and combined endothelin receptor blockade. Circulation 109, 1186–1193.
35Piatti, PM, Monti, LD, Conti, M, Baruffaldi, L, Galli, L, Phan, CV, Guazzini, B, Pontiroli, AE & Pozza, G (1996) Hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia are potent inducers of endothelin-1 release in humans. Diabetes 45, 316–321.
36Lerman, A, Edwards, BS, Hallett, JW, Heublein, DM, Sandberg, SM & Burnett, JC Jr (1991) Circulating and tissue endothelin immunoreactivity in advanced atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 325, 997–1001.
37Maeso, R, Aragoncillo, P, Navarro-Cid, J, Ruilope, LM, Diaz, C, Hernandez, G, Lahera, V & Cachofeiro, V (2000) Effect of atorvastatin on endothelium-dependent constrictor factors in dyslipidemic rabbits. Gen Pharmacol 34, 263–272.