1 Olsen, SF & Joensen, HD (1985) High liveborn birth weights in the Faroes: a comparison between birth weights in the Faroes and in Denmark. J Epidemiol Community Health 39, 27–32.
2 Olsen, SF, Hansen, HS, Sorensen, TI, et al. (1986) Intake of marine fat, rich in (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids, may increase birthweight by prolonging gestation. Lancet ii, 367–369.
3 Olsen, SF, Hansen, HS, Sommer, S, et al. (1991) Gestational age in relation to marine n-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes: a study of women in the Faroe Islands and Denmark. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164, 1203–1209.
4 Olsen, SF, Grandjean, P, Weihe, P, et al. (1993) Frequency of seafood intake in pregnancy as a determinant of birth weight: evidence for a dose dependent relationship. J Epidemiol Community Health 47, 436–440.
5 Philibert, A, Vanier, C, Abdelouahab, N, et al. (2006) Fish intake and serum fatty acid profiles from freshwater fish. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 1299–1307.
6 Innis, SM (2003) Perinatal biochemistry and physiology of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr 143, S1–S8.
7 Uauy, R, Calderon, F & Mena, P (2001) Essential fatty acids in somatic growth and brain development. World Rev Nutr Diet 89, 134–160.
8 Szajewska, H, Horvath, A & Koletzko, B (2006) Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1337–1344.
9 Olsen, SF, Osterdal, ML, Salvig, JD, et al. (2006) Duration of pregnancy in relation to seafood intake during early and mid pregnancy: prospective cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 21, 749–758.
10 Olsen, SF (2004) Is supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy a useful tool in the prevention of preterm birth? Clin Obstet Gynecol 47, 768–774, .
11 Hansen, HS & Olsen, SF (1988) Dietary (n-3)-fatty acids, prostaglandins, and prolonged gestation in humans. Prog Clin Biol Res 282, 305–317.
12 Sorensen, JD, Olsen, SF, Pedersen, AK, et al. (1993) Effects of fish oil supplementation in the third trimester of pregnancy on prostacyclin and thromboxane production. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168, 915–922.
13 Olsen, SF (1994) Further on the association between retarded foetal growth and adult cardiovascular disease. Could low intake or marine diets be a common cause? J Clin Epidemiol 47, 565–569.
14 Mahaffey, KR (2004) Fish and shellfish as dietary sources of methylmercury and the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosahexaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid: risks and benefits. Environ Res 95, 414–428.
15 Ramon, R, Murcia, M, Ballester, F, et al. (2008) Prenatal exposure to mercury in a prospective mother-infant cohort study in a Mediterranean area, Valencia, Spain. Sci Total Environ 392, 69–78.
16 Ramon, R, Ballester, F, Aguinagalde, X, et al. (2009) Fish consumption during pregnancy, prenatal mercury exposure, and anthropometric measures at birth in a prospective mother-infant cohort study in Spain. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1047–1055.
17 Halldorsson, TI, Thorsdottir, I, Meltzer, HM, et al. (2008) Linking exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls with fatty fish consumption and reduced fetal growth among Danish pregnant women: a cause for concern? Am J Epidemiol 168, 958–965.
18 Halldorsson, TI, Meltzer, HM, Thorsdottir, I, et al. (2007) Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44,824 Danish pregnant women. Am J Epidemiol 166, 687–696.
19 Rogers, I, Emmett, P, Ness, A, et al. (2004) Maternal fish intake in late pregnancy and the frequency of low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation in a cohort of British infants. J Epidemiol Community Health 58, 486–492.
20 Buck, GM, Tee, GP, Fitzgerald, EF, et al. (2003) Maternal fish consumption and infant birth size and gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study. Environ Health 2, 7.
21 Drouillet, P, Kaminski, M, De Lauzon-Guillain, B, et al. (2009) Association between maternal seafood consumption before pregnancy and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The EDEN mother–child cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23, 76–86.
22 Oken, E, Kleinman, KP, Olsen, SF, et al. (2004) Associations of seafood and elongated n-3 fatty acid intake with fetal growth and length of gestation: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol 160, 774–783.
23 Guldner, L, Monfort, C, Rouget, F, et al. (2007) Maternal fish and shellfish intake and pregnancy outcomes: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France. Environ Health 6, 33.
24 Jaddoe, VW, van Duijn, CM, van der Heijden, AJ, et al. (2008) The Generation R Study: design and cohort update until the age of 4 years. Eur J Epidemiol 23, 801–811.
25 Jaddoe, VW, Bakker, R, van Duijn, CM, et al. (2007) The Generation R Study Biobank: a resource for epidemiological studies in children and their parents. Eur J Epidemiol 22, 917–923.
26 Klipstein-Grobusch, K, den Breeijen, JH, Goldbohm, RA, et al. (1998) Dietary assessment in the elderly: validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 588–596.
27 Donders-Engelen, M, Van Der Heijden, L & Hulshof, K (2003) Maten Gewichten Codenummers (Measures Weights Code Numbers). Wageningen, The Netherlands: Vakgroep Humane Voeding, Landbouwuniversiteit. Wageningen en TNO Voeding Zeist.
28 Netherlands-Nutrition-Centre (2006) Nevo: Dutch Food Composition Database 2006. The Hague: Netherlands Nutrition Centre.
29 Verburg, BO, Steegers, EA, De Ridder, M, et al. (2008) New charts for ultrasound dating of pregnancy and assessment of fetal growth: longitudinal data from a population-based cohort study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31, 388–396.
30 Hadlock, FP, Harrist, RB, Sharman, RS, et al. (1985) Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body, and femur measurements – a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151, 333–337.
31 Bakker, R, Steegers, EA, Obradov, A, et al. (2010) Maternal caffeine intake from coffee and tea, fetal growth, and the risks of adverse birth outcomes: the Generation R Study. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1691–1698.
32 Pena, IC, Teberg, AJ & Finello, KM (1988) The premature small-for-gestational-age infant during the first year of life: comparison by birth weight and gestational age. J Pediatr 113, 1066–1073.
33 Barker, DJ (2006) Adult consequences of fetal growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol 49, 270–283.
34 Ay, L, Kruithof, CJ, Bakker, R, et al. (2009) Maternal anthropometrics are associated with fetal size in different periods of pregnancy and at birth. The Generation R Study. BJOG 116, 953–963.
35 de Goede, J, Geleijnse, JM, Boer, JM, et al. (2010) Marine (n-3) fatty acids, fish consumption, and the 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease in a large population of Dutch adults with low fish intake. J Nutr 140, 1023–1028.
36 Anonymous (1998) Zo eet Nederland 1998. Resultaten van de Voedselconsumptiepeiling 1997–1998 (Results of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 1997–1998). Den Haag: Voedingscentrum.
37 Welch, AA, Lund, E, Amiano, P, et al. (2002) Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 5, 1273–1285.
38 Mendez, MA, Plana, E, Guxens, M, et al. (2010) Seafood consumption in pregnancy and infant size at birth: results from a prospective Spanish cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health 64, 216–222.
39 Olsen, SF & Secher, NJ (2002) Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: prospective cohort study. BMJ 324, 447.
40 Thorsdottir, I, Birgisdottir, BE, Halldorsdottir, S, et al. (2004) Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community. Am J Epidemiol 160, 460–465.
41 Donahue, SM, Rifas-Shiman, SL, Olsen, SF, et al. (2009) Associations of maternal prenatal dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids with maternal and umbilical cord blood levels. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 80, 289–296.
42 Konishi, K, Sasaki, S, Kato, S, et al. (2009) Prenatal exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in relation to birth weight. Environ Res 109, 906–913.
43 Sagiv, SK, Tolbert, PE, Altshul, LM, et al. (2007) Organochlorine exposures during pregnancy and infant size at birth. Epidemiology 18, 120–129.
44 Sonneborn, D, Park, HY, Petrik, J, et al. (2008) Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in eastern Slovakia modify effects of social factors on birthweight. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 22, 202–213.
45 Hertz-Picciotto, I, Charles, MJ, James, RA, et al. (2005) In utero polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in relation to fetal and early childhood growth. Epidemiology 16, 648–656.
46 Rylander, L, Stromberg, U, Dyremark, E, et al. (1998) Polychlorinated biphenyls in blood plasma among Swedish female fish consumers in relation to low birth weight. Am J Epidemiol 147, 493–502.
47 Baars, AJ, Bakker, MI, Baumann, RA, et al. (2004) Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs: occurrence and dietary intake in The Netherlands. Toxicol Lett 151, 51–61.
48 De Mul, A, Bakker, MI, Zeilmaker, MJ, et al. (2008) Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51, 278–287.
49 Patandin, S, Koopman-Esseboom, C, de Ridder, MA, et al. (1998) Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on birth size and growth in Dutch children. Pediatr Res 44, 538–545.
50 Grandjean, P, Bjerve, KS, Weihe, P, et al. (2001) Birthweight in a fishing community: significance of essential fatty acids and marine food contaminants. Int J Epidemiol 30, 1272–1278.
51 Longnecker, MP, Klebanoff, MA, Brock, JW, et al. (2005) Maternal levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in relation to preterm and small-for-gestational-age birth. Epidemiology 16, 641–647.
52 Weisskopf, MG, Anderson, HA, Hanrahan, LP, et al. (2005) Maternal exposure to Great Lakes sport-caught fish and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, but not polychlorinated biphenyls, is associated with reduced birth weight. Environ Res 97, 149–162.
53 van Leeuwen, SP, Leonards, PE, Traag, WA, et al. (2007) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in fish from The Netherlands: concentrations, profiles and comparison with DR CALUX bioassay results. Anal Bioanal Chem 389, 321–333.
54 Polder, A, Thomsen, C, Lindstrom, G, et al. (2008) Levels and temporal trends of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in individual human breast milk samples from Northern and Southern Norway. Chemosphere 73, 14–23.
55 Murphy, LE, Gollenberg, AL, Buck Louis, GM, et al. (2010) Maternal serum preconception polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and infant birth weight. Environ Health Perspect 118, 297–302.