1 Sargent, JR & Tacon, AG (1999) Development of farmed fish: a nutritionally necessary alternative to meat. Proc Nutr Soc 58, 377–383.
2 Hertrampf, JW & Piedad-Pascual, F (2000) Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
3 NRC (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
4 Pike, IH & Barlow, SM (2003) Impact of fish farming on fish stocks. Int Aquafeed Dir Buy Guide 24–29.
5 Tacon, AGJ (2004) Use of fish meal and fish oil in aquaculture: a global perspective. Aquat Resour Cult Dev 1, 3–14.
6 Tidwell, JH & Allan, GL (2001) Fish as food: aquaculture's contribution. Ecological and economic impacts and contributions of fish farming and capture fisheries. EMBO Rep 2, 958–963.
7 Delgado, CL, Wada, N, Rosegrant, MW, et al. (2003) Fish to 2020: Supply and Demand in Changing Global Markets. Washington, DC/Penang: International Food Policy Research Institute/WorldFish Center.
8 Trushenski, JT, Kasper, CS & Kohler, CC (2006) Challenges and opportunities in finfish nutrition. N Am J Aquac 68, 122–140.
9 Bell, JG, McGhee, F, Dick, JR, et al. (2005) Dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Scottish farmed salmon (Salmo salar): effects of replacement of dietary marine fish oil with vegetable oils. Aquaculture 243, 305–314.
10 SCAN (2000) Dioxin Contamination of Feedingstuffs and their Contribution to the Contamination of Food of Animal Origin. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition, adopted on 6 November 2000. Brussels: European Commission for Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General.
11 SCF (2001) Update of the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food Based on New Scientific Information Available since Adoption of the SCF Opinion of 22nd November 2000. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food, adopted on 30 May 2001. Brussels: European Commission for Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General.
12 Bethune, C, Seierstad, SL, Seljeflot, I, et al. (2006) Dietary intake of differently fed salmon: a preliminary study on contaminants. Eur J Clin Invest 36, 193–201.
13 Bell, JG & Waagbø, R (2008) Safe and nutritious aquaculture produce: benefits and risks of alternative sustainable aquafeeds. In Aquaculture in the Ecosystem, pp. 185–225 [Holmer, M, Black, K, Duarte, CM, Marbà, N and Karakassis, I, editors]. Berlin: Springer.
14 Turchini, GM, Torstensen, BE & Ng, W-K (2009) Fish oil replacement in finfish nutrition. Rev Aquac 1, 10–57.
15 Glencross, BD (2009) Exploring the nutritional demand for essential fatty acids by aquaculture species. Rev Aquac 1, 71–124.
16 Bell, JG, McEvoy, J, Tocher, DR, et al. (2001) Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid compositions and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr 131, 1535–1543.
17 Bell, JG, McGhee, F, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2003) Rapeseed oil as an alternative to marine fish oil in diets of post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): changes in flesh fatty acid composition and effectiveness of subsequent fish oil “wash out”. Aquaculture 218, 515–528.
18 Ng, W-K, Sigholt, T & Bell, JG (2004) The influence of environmental temperature on the apparent nutrient and fatty acid digestibility in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed finishing diets containing different blends of fish oil, rapeseed oil and palm oil. Aquacult Res 35, 1228–1237.
19 Torstensen, BE, Frøyland, L & Lie, Ø (2004) Replacing dietary fish oil with increasing levels of rapeseed oil and olive oil – effects on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissue and lipoprotein lipid composition and lipogenic enzyme activities. Aquacult Nutr 10, 175–192.
20 Torstensen, BE, Frøyland, L, Ørnsrud, R, et al. (2004) Tailoring of a cardioprotective muscle fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed vegetable oils. Food Chem 87, 567–580.
21 Torstensen, BE, Bell, JG, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2005) Tailoring of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh lipid composition and sensory quality by replacing fish oil with a vegetable oil blend. J Agric Food Chem 53, 10166–10178.
22 Caballero, MJ, Obach, A, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2002) Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 214, 253–271.
23 Bendiksen, EÅ, Berg, OK, Jobling, M, et al. (2003) Digestibility, growth and nutrient utilisation of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L.) in relation to temperature, feed fat content and oil source. Aquaculture 224, 283–299.
24 Karalazos, V, Bendiksen, EA, Dick, JR, et al. (2007) Effects of dietary protein, and fat level and rapeseed oil on growth and tissue fatty acid composition and metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at low water temperatures. Aquacult Nutr 13, 256–265.
25 Henderson, RJ & Sargent, JR (1985) Chain-length specificities of mitochondrial and peroxisimal β-oxidation of fatty acids in livers of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comp Biochem Physiol B 82, 79–85.
26 Sargent, JR, Tocher, DR & Bell, JG (2002) The lipids. In Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed., pp. 181–257 [Halver, JE and Hardy, RW, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Elsevier Science.
27 Kiessling, KH & Kiessling, A (1993) Selective utilization of fatty acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) red muscle mitochondria. Can J Zool 71, 248–251.
28 Cho, CY & Bureau, DP (1997) Reduction of waste output from salmonid aquaculture through feeds and feeding. Prog Fish Cult 59, 155–160.
29 Halver, JE & Hardy, RW (2002) Nutrient flow and retention. In Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed., pp. 768–769 [Halver, JE and Hardy, RW, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Elsevier Science.
30 Azevedo, PA, Leeson, S, Cho, CY, et al. (2004) Growth, nitrogen and energy utilization of juveniles from four salmonid species: diet, species and size effects. Aquaculture 234, 393–414.
31 Azevedo, PA, Leeson, S, Cho, CY, et al. (2004) Growth and feed utilization of large size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in freshwater: diet and species effects, and responses over time. Aquacult Nutr 10, 401–411.
32 Einen, O & Roem, AJ (1997) Dietary protein/energy ratios for Atlantic salmon in relation to fish size: growth, feed utilization and slaughter quality. Aquacult Nutr 3, 115–126.
33 Hillestad, M, Johnsen, F, Austreng, E, et al. (1998) Long-term effects of dietary fat level and feeding rate on growth, feed utilization and carcass quality of Atlantic salmon. Aquacult Nutr 4, 89–97.
34 Solberg, C (2004) Influence of dietary oil content on the growth and chemical composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquacult Nutr 10, 31–37.
35 Bendiksen, EÅ, Arnesen, AM & Jobling, M (2003) Effects of dietary fatty acid profile and fat content on smolting and seawater performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 225, 149–163.
36 Bendiksen, EÅ & Jobling, M (2003) Effects of temperature and feed composition on essential fatty acid (n-3 and n-6) retention in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr. Fish Physiol Biochem 29, 133–140.
37 Karalazos, V, Bendiksen, EÅ & Bell, JG (2010) Interactive effects of dietary protein/lipid level and oil source on growth, feed utilisation and nutrient and fatty acid digestibility of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture .
38 Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
39 Christie, WW (1982) Lipid Analyses, 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
40 Tocher, DR & Harvie, DG (1988) Fatty acid compositions of the major phosphoglycerides from fish neural tissues; (n-3) and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and cod (Gadus morhua) brains and retinas. Fish Physiol Biochem 5, 229–239.
41 Ackman, RG (1980) Fish lipids, part 1. In Advances in Fish Science and Technology, pp. 86–103 [Connell, JJ, editor]. Farnham: Fishing New Books Ltd.
42 Frøyland, L, Asiedu, DK, Vaagenes, H, et al. (1995) Tetradecylthioacetic acid incorporated into very low density lipoprotein: changes in the fatty acid composition and reduced plasma lipids in cholesterol-fed hamsters. J Lipid Res 36, 2529–2540.
43 Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL, et al. (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
44 Zar, JH (1999) Biostatistical Analysis, 4th ed. London: Prentice-Hall International Editions.
45 Menoyo, D, Lopez-Bote, CJ, Bautista, JM, et al. (2003) Growth, digestibility and fatty acid utilization in large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed varying levels of n-3 and saturated fatty acids. Aquaculture 225, 295–307.
46 Bell, JG, Tocher, DR, Henderson, RJ, et al. (2003) Altered fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing linseed and rapeseed oils can be partially restored by a subsequent fish oil finishing diet. J Nutr 133, 2793–2801.
47 Rosenlund, G, Obach, A, Sandberg, MG, et al. (2001) Effect of alternative lipid sources on long-term growth performance and quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult Res 32, Suppl. 1, 323–328.
48 Xia, T, Mostafa, N, Bhat, BG, et al. (1993) Selective retention of essential fatty acids: the role of hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 265, R414–R419.
49 Tocher, DR, Bell, JG, Dick, JR, et al. (2003) Effects of dietary vegetable oil on Atlantic salmon hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and liver fatty acid compositions. Lipids 38, 723–732.
50 Tocher, DR, Bell, JG, MacGlaughlin, P, et al. (2001) Hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of liver in salmonids: effects of dietary vegetable oil. Comp Biochem Physiol B 130, 257–270.
51 Tocher, DR, Bell, JG, McGhee, F, et al. (2003) Effects of dietary lipid level and vegetable oil on fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) over the whole production cycle. Fish Physiol Biochem 29, 193–209.
52 Tocher, DR, Bendiksen, EÅ, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 21–34.
53 Denstadli, V, Vegusdal, A, Krogdahl, Å, et al. (2004) Lipid absorption in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 240, 385–398.
54 Oxley, A, Tocher, DR, Torstensen, BE, et al. (2005) Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil. Biochim Biophys Acta 1737, 119–129.
55 Pérez, JA, Rodríguez, C & Henderson, RJ (1999) The uptake and esterification of radiolabelled fatty acids by enterocytes isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiol Biochem 20, 125–134.
56 Frøyland, L, Lie, O & Berge, RK (2000) Mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities in various tissues from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquacult Nutr 6, 85–89.
57 Stubhaug, I, Frøyland, L & Torstensen, BE (2005) β-Oxidation capacity of red and white muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) – effects of increasing dietary rapeseed oil and olive oil to replace capelin oil. Lipids 40, 39–47.
58 Stubhaug, I, Lie, Ø & Torstensen, BE (2007) Fatty acid productive value and β-oxidation capacity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed on different lipid sources along the whole growth period. Aquacult Nutr 13, 145–155.
59 Tocher, DR, Fonseca-Madrigal, J, Bell, JG, et al. (2002) Effects of diets containing linseed oil on fatty acid desaturation and oxidation in hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiol Biochem 26, 157–170.
60 Henderson, RJ & Tocher, DR (1987) The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog Lipid Res 26, 281–347.
61 Torstensen, BE, Lie, Ø & Frøyland, L (2000) Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) – effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources. Lipids 35, 653–664.
62 Torstensen, BE & Stubhaug, I (2004) Beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes treated with different fatty acids. Lipids 39, 153–160.
63 Stubhaug, I, Tocher, DR, Bell, JG, et al. (2005) Fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes and influence of dietary vegetable oil. Biochim Biophys Acta 1734, 277–288.