Skip to main content Accessibility help

The influence of juicing on the appearance of blueberry metabolites 2 h after consumption: a metabolite profiling approach

  • Swen Langer (a1), Aileen Kennel (a1) and John K. Lodge (a1)


The consumption of berries has been linked to decreased risk of degenerative disease. Berries are regularly processed into juices. It is largely unknown how the juicing process affects the bioavailability of metabolites. As metabolomics has shown to be a valuable nutritional tool to study global metabolite differences, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juicing on the relative appearance of blueberry metabolites in humans using metabolomics. Nine healthy subjects consumed 250 g of fresh blueberries either as the whole fruit or after juicing, and provided blood and urine samples before and 2 h after intake in a cross-over design. Samples underwent metabolite profiling using LCMS, and data were mined with multivariate analysis. Overall, <12 % of all ions detected were significantly influenced by blueberry treatment (P<0·05). Partial least-squared discriminant analysis models of post-treatment samples revealed good discrimination. In urinary samples, whole blueberry treatment resulted in 108 ions that were significantly higher compared with juiced treatment (positive and negative mode combined), whereas only eight were significantly higher after juiced treatment. Examples of putative annotations included metabolites of ferulic and caffeic acids, several phenolic metabolites conjugated to sulphate, glycoside or glucuronide and fatty acyl derivatives, which were of higher intensity after whole blueberry treatment. In conclusion, consumption of whole blueberries resulted in a higher range of phenolic and other metabolites in plasma and urine samples 2 h after consumption. Both whole and juiced blueberries resulted in very similar metabolite profiles at 2 h, although this was the only time point measured.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The influence of juicing on the appearance of blueberry metabolites 2 h after consumption: a metabolite profiling approach
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The influence of juicing on the appearance of blueberry metabolites 2 h after consumption: a metabolite profiling approach
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The influence of juicing on the appearance of blueberry metabolites 2 h after consumption: a metabolite profiling approach
      Available formats


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr J. K. Lodge, email


Hide All
1. Bazzano, LA, He, J, Ogden, LG, et al. (2002) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 9399.
2. He, FJ, Nowson, CA, Lucas, M, et al. (2007) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 21, 717728.
3. McAnulty, LS, Collier, SR, Landram, MJ, et al. (2014) Six weeks daily ingestion of whole blueberry powder increases natural killer cell counts and reduces arterial stiffness in sedentary males and females. Nutr Res 34, 577584.
4. Seeram, NP (2008) Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease. J Agric Food Chem 56, 627629.
5. Albani, V, Butler, LT, Traill, WB, et al. (2017) Fruit and vegetable intake: change with age across childhood and adolescence. Br J Nutr 117, 759765.
6. Ruxton, CHS (2008) Smoothies: one portion or two? Nutr Bull 33, 129132.
7. Kuntz, S, Rudloff, S, Asseburg, H, et al. (2015) Uptake and bioavailability of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from grape/blueberry juice and smoothie in vitro and in vivo . Br J Nutr 113, 10441055.
8. Caswell, H (2009) The role of fruit juice in the diet: an overview. Nutr Bull 34, 273288.
9. Khan, TA & Sievenpiper, JL (2016) Controversies about sugars: results from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on obesity, cardiometabolic disease and diabetes. Eur J Nutr 55, 2543.
10. Manach, C, Mazur, A & Scalbert, A (2005) Polyphenols and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Curr Opin Lipidol 16, 7784.
11. Scalbert, A, Manach, C, Morand, C, et al. (2005) Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45, 287306.
12. Zamora-Ros, R, Knaze, V, Lujan-Barroso, L, et al. (2011) Estimation of the intake of anthocyanidins and their food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Br J Nutr 106, 10901099.
13. Manach, C, Williamson, G, Morand, C, et al. (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 230S242S.
14. Bitsch, I, Janssen, M, Netzel, M, et al. (2004) Bioavailability of anthocyanidin-3-glycosides following consumption of elderberry extract and blackcurrant juice. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 42, 293300.
15. Holst, B & Williamson, G (2008) Nutrients and phytochemicals: from bioavailability to bioefficacy beyond antioxidants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19, 7382.
16. Rodriguez-Mateos, A, Del Pino-Garcia, R, George, TW, et al. (2014) Impact of processing on the bioavailability and vascular effects of blueberry (poly)phenols. Mol Nutr Food Res 58, 19521961.
17. Keane, KM, Bell, PG, Lodge, JK, et al. (2016) Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro . Eur J Nutr 55, 16951705.
18. Borges, G, Mullen, W, Mullan, A, et al. (2010) Bioavailability of multiple components following acute ingestion of a polyphenol-rich juice drink. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, Suppl. 2, S268S277.
19. Mertens-Talcott, SU, Rios, J, Jilma-Stohlawetz, P, et al. (2008) Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers. J Agric Food Chem 56, 77967802.
20. Kay, CD, Mazza, G, Holub, BJ, et al. (2004) Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum. Br J Nutr 91, 933942.
21. Kalt, W, Liu, Y, McDonald, JE, et al. (2014) Anthocyanin metabolites are abundant and persistent in human urine. J Agric Food Chem 62, 39263934.
22. Tomas, M, Toydemir, G, Boyacioglu, D, et al. (2015) The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants. Food chemistry 186, 277284.
23. Kamiloglu, S, Demirci, M, Selen, S, et al. (2014) Home processing of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum): effects on in vitro bioaccessibility of total lycopene, phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity. J Sci Food Agric 94, 22252233.
24. Toydemir, G, Boyacioglu, D, Capanoglu, E, et al. (2013) Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells. J Agric Food Chem 61, 1143411441.
25. Primrose, S, Draper, J, Elsom, R, et al. (2011) Metabolomics and human nutrition. Br J Nutr 105, 12771283.
26. Wong, M & Lodge, JK (2012) A metabolomic investigation of the effects of vitamin E supplementation in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond) 9, 110.
27. Lloyd, AJ, Beckmann, M, Fave, G, et al. (2011) Proline betaine and its biotransformation products in fasting urine samples are potential biomarkers of habitual citrus fruit consumption. Br J Nutr 106, 812824.
28. Beckmann, M, Joosen, AM, Clarke, MM, et al. (2016) Changes in the human plasma and urinary metabolome associated with acute dietary exposure to sucrose and the identification of potential biomarkers of sucrose intake. Mol Nutr Food Res 60, 444457.
29. Serafini, M, Testa, MF, Villano, D, et al. (2009) Antioxidant activity of blueberry fruit is impaired by association with milk. Free Radic Biol Med 46, 769774.
30. Nyamundanda, G, Gormley, IC, Fan, Y, et al. (2013) MetSizeR: selecting the optimal sample size for metabolomic studies using an analysis based approach. BMC Bioinformatics 14, 338.
31. Aschoff, JK, Rolke, CL, Breusing, N, et al. (2015) Bioavailability of beta-cryptoxanthin is greater from pasteurized orange juice than from fresh oranges – a randomized cross-over study. Mol Nutr Food Res 59, 18961904.
32. Rock, CL, Lovalvo, JL, Emenhiser, C, et al. (1998) Bioavailability of beta-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. J Nutr 128, 913916.
33. Fave, G, Beckmann, M, Lloyd, AJ, et al. (2011) Development and validation of a standardized protocol to monitor human dietary exposure by metabolite fingerprinting of urine samples. Metabolomics 7, 469484.
34. Porrini, M, Riso, P & Testolin, G (1998) Absorption of lycopene from single or daily portions of raw and processed tomato. Br J Nutr 80, 353361.
35. Ruxton, CHS, Gardner, EJ & Walker, D (2006) Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence. Int J Food Sci Nutr 57, 249272.
36. Beighton, D, Brailsford, SR, Gilbert, SC, et al. (2004) Intra-oral acid production associated with eating whole or pulped raw fruits. Caries Res 38, 341349.
37. Nicklas, TA, O’Neil, CE & Kleinman, R (2008) Association between 100% juice consumption and nutrient intake and weight of children aged 2 to 11 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 162, 557565.
38. Rothwell, JA, Fillatre, Y, Martin, JF, et al. (2014) New biomarkers of coffee consumption identified by the non-targeted metabolomic profiling of cohort study subjects. PLOS ONE 9, e93474.
39. Garcia-Aloy, M, Llorach, R, Urpi-Sarda, M, et al. (2014) Novel multimetabolite prediction of walnut consumption by a urinary biomarker model in a free-living population: the PREDIMED study. J Proteome Res 13, 34763483.
40. Beckmann, M, Lloyd, AJ, Haldar, S, et al. (2013) Dietary exposure biomarker-lead discovery based on metabolomics analysis of urine samples. Proc Nutr Soc 72, 352361.
41. Lloyd, AJ, Fave, G, Beckmann, M, et al. (2011) Use of mass spectrometry fingerprinting to identify urinary metabolites after consumption of specific foods. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 981991.
42. Del Rio, D, Borges, G & Crozier, A (2010) Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects. Br J Nutr 104, Suppl. 3, S67S90.
43. Pimpao, RC, Dew, T, Figueira, ME, et al. (2014) Urinary metabolite profiling identifies novel colonic metabolites and conjugates of phenolics in healthy volunteers. Mol Nutr Food Res 58, 14141425.
44. Pimpao, RC, Ventura, MR, Ferreira, RB, et al. (2015) Phenolic sulfates as new and highly abundant metabolites in human plasma after ingestion of a mixed berry fruit purée. Br J Nutr 113, 454463.
45. Liu, H, Garrett, TJ, Su, Z, et al. (2017) UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS-based global metabolomics reveal metabolome modifications in plasma of young women after cranberry juice consumption. J Nutr Biochem 45, 6776.
46. Sensoy, I (2014) A review on the relationship between food structure, processing, and bioavailability. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54, 902909.
47. Michalska, A & Lysiak, G (2015) Bioactive compounds of blueberries: post-harvest factors influencing the nutritional value of products. Int J Mol Sci 16, 1864218663.
48. Palafox-Carlos, H, Ayala-Zavala, JF & Gonzalez-Aguilar, GA (2011) The role of dietary fiber in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants. J Food Sci 76, R6R15.
49. Bennink, R, Peeters, M, Van den Maegdenbergh, V, et al. (1999) Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women. Eur J Nucl Med 26, 15601566.
50. Hagl, S, Deusser, H, Soyalan, B, et al. (2011) Colonic availability of polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid after apple smoothie consumption. Mol Nutr Food Res 55, 368377.
51. Rago, D, Guerdeniz, G, Ravn-Haren, G, et al. (2015) An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC-MS profiling. Metabolomics 11, 2739.
52. Brownmiller, C, Howard, LR & Prior, RL (2008) Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products. J Food Sci 73, H72H79.
53. Lee, J, Durst, RW & Wrolstad, RE (2002) Impact of juice processing on blueberry anthocyanins and polyphenolics: comparison of two pretreatments. J Food Sci 67, 16601667.
54. Feliciano, RP, Boeres, A, Massacessi, L, et al. (2016) Identification and quantification of novel cranberry-derived plasma and urinary (poly)phenols. Arch Biochem Biophys 599, 3141.
55. Xie, L, Lee, SG, Vance, TM, et al. (2016) Bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites following consumption of aronia berry extract. Food Chem 211, 860868.
56. Sakakibara, H, Ichikawa, Y, Tajima, S, et al. (2014) Practical application of flavonoid-poor menu meals to the study of the bioavailability of bilberry anthocyanins in human subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 78, 17481752.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Langer et al. supplementary material
Figures S1-S5 and Table S1

 Word (425 KB)
425 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed