Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial

  • Kathryn Beck (a1), Cathryn A. Conlon (a1), Rozanne Kruger (a1), Jane Coad (a1) and Welma Stonehouse (a1)...

Abstract

Ascorbic acid, and more recently, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to enhance Fe absorption. However, it is not clear whether Fe status improves when foods high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids are consumed with Fe-fortified meals. The present study aimed to investigate whether consuming high v. low ascorbic acid-, lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit (gold kiwifruit v. banana) with Fe-fortified breakfast cereal and milk improved Fe status in women with low Fe stores. Healthy women aged 18–44 years (n 89) with low Fe stores (serum ferritin ≤ 25 μg/l and Hb ≥ 115 g/l) were randomly stratified to receive Fe-fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate), milk and either two gold kiwifruit or one banana (164 mg v. not detectable ascorbic acid; 526 v. 22·90 μg lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively) at breakfast every day for 16 weeks. Biomarkers of Fe status and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and end in the final sample (n 69). Median serum ferritin increased significantly in the kiwifruit group (n 33) compared with the banana group (n 36), with 10·0 (25th, 75th percentiles 3·0, 17·5) v. 1·0 (25th, 75th percentiles − 2·8, 6·5) μg/l (P < 0·001). Median soluble transferrin receptor concentrations decreased significantly in the kiwifruit group compared with the banana group, with − 0·5 (25th, 75th percentiles − 0·7, − 0·1) v. 0·0 (25th, 75th percentiles − 0·3, 0·4) mg/l (P = 0·001). Consumption of an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal with kiwifruit compared with banana improved Fe status. Addition of an ascorbic acid-, lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich fruit to a breakfast cereal fortified with ferrous sulfate is a feasible approach to improve Fe status in women with low Fe stores.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron-fortified breakfast cereal meal improves iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16-week randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Kathryn Beck, fax +64 9 4439640, email K.L.Beck@massey.ac.nz

References

Hide All
1Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (2002) Iron. In Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 195221. Rome: FAO.
2Heath, ALM, Skeaff, CM, Williams, S, et al. (2001) The role of blood loss and diet in the aetiology of mild iron deficiency in premenopausal adult New Zealand women. Public Health Nutr 4, 197206.
3Heath, ALM, Skeaff, CM, O'Brien, SM, et al. (2001) Can dietary treatment of non-anemic iron deficiency improve iron status? J Am Coll Nutr 20, 477484.
4Hurrell, RF, Lynch, S, Bothwell, T, et al. (2004) Enhancing the absorption of fortification iron: a SUSTAIN Task Force report. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 74, 387401.
5Rossander-Hulthen, L & Hallberg, L (1996) Dietary factors influencing iron absorption – an overview. In Iron Nutrition in Health and Disease, pp. 105115 [Hallberg, L and Asp, N, editors]. London: John Libbey and Company Ltd.
6Diaz, M, Rosado, JL, Allen, LH, et al. (2003) The efficacy of a local ascorbic acid-rich food in improving iron absorption from Mexican diets: a field study using stable isotopes. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 436440.
7Cook, JD & Monsen, ER (1977) Vitamin C, the common cold and iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 30, 235241.
8Garcia-Casal, MN (2006) Carotenoids increase iron absorption from cereal-based food in the human. Nutr Res 26, 340344.
9Walczyk, T, Davidsson, L, Rossander-Hulthen, L, et al. (2003) No enhancing effect of vitamin A on iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 144149.
10Cook, JD & Reddy, MB (2001) Effect of ascorbic acid intake on nonheme-iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 9398.
11Reddy, MB, Hurrell, RF & Cook, JD (2000) Estimation of nonheme-iron bioavailability from meal composition. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 937943.
12Cook, JD, Watson, SS, Simpson, KM, et al. (1984) The effect of high ascorbic acid supplementation on body iron stores. Blood 64, 721726.
13Hunt, JR, Mullen, LM, Lykken, GI, et al. (1990) Ascorbic acid: effect on ongoing iron absorption and status in iron-depleted young women. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 649655.
14Hunt, JR, Gallagher, SK & Johnson, LK (1994) Effect of ascorbic acid on apparent iron absorption by women with low iron stores. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 13811385.
15Kandiah, J (2002) Impact of tofu or tofu+orange juice on hematological indices of lacto-ovo vegetarian females. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57, 197204.
16Garcia, OP, Diaz, M, Rosado, JL, et al. (2003) Ascorbic acid from lime juice does not improve the iron status of iron-deficient women in rural Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 267273.
17Hurrell, RF (2002) Fortification: overcoming technical and practical barriers. J Nutr 132, 806S812S.
18Beck, K, Conlon, C, Kruger, R, et al. (2010) The effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: a 16 week randomised controlled intervention study. BMC Public Health 10, 36.
19Taylor, P, Martinez-Torres, C, Leets, I, et al. (1988) Relationships among iron absorption, percent saturation, of plasma transferrin and serum ferritin concentration in humans. J Nutr 118, 11101115.
20Fairweather-Tait, SJ (1995) Iron absorption. In Iron: Nutritional and Physiological Significance, pp. 312 [British Nutrition Foundation, , editor]. London: Chapman and Hall.
21Marfell-Jones, M, Olds, T, Stewart, A, et al. (2006) International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. Potchefstroom, South Africa: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry.
22Heath, AL, Skeaff, CM & Gibson, RS (1998) Validation of a questionnaire method for estimating extent of menstrual blood loss in young adult women. J Trace Elem Med Biol 12, 231235.
23Hulthen, L, Lindstedt, G, Lundberg, P-A, et al. (1998) Effect of mild infection on serum ferritin concentration – clinical and epidemiological implications. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 376379.
24Allen, LH & Ahluwalia, N (1997) Improving iron status through diet: the application of knowledge concerning dietary iron bioavailability in human populations. MOST: The USAID Micronutrient Program. http://www.mostproject.org/Archives.htm#IronArchives (accessed May 2010).
25Teucher, B, Olivares, M &Cori, H (editors) (2003) Enhancers of Iron Absorption: Ascorbic Acid and Other Organic Acids. Sustain Workshop on Innovative Ingredient Technologies to Enhance Iron Absorption Mar 09–12. Washington, DC: Verlag Hans Huber.
26Hallberg, L, Brune, M & Rossander, L (1986) Effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from different types of meals: studies with ascorbic-acid-rich foods and synthetic ascorbic acid given in different amounts with different meals. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40A, 97113.
27Cook, JD (2005) Diagnosis and management of iron-deficiency anaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 18, 319332.
28Gibson, RS (2005) Principles of Nutritional Assessment, 2nd ed.New York: Oxford University Press.
29Baynes, RD (1996) Assessment of iron status. Clin Biochem 29, 209215.
30Ballot, D, Baynes, RD, Bothwell, TH, et al. (1987) The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal. Br J Nutr 57, 331343.
31Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing Australia, Ministry Of Health New Zealand & National Health and Medical Research Council (2006) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand Government.
32Zimmerman, MB, Winichagoon, P, Gowachirapant, S, et al. (2005) Comparison of the efficacy of wheat-based snacks fortified with ferrous sulfate, electrolytic iron, or hydrogen-reduced elemental iron: randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in Thai women. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 12761282.
33Cook, JD, Reddy, MB, Burri, J, et al. (1997) The influence of different cereal grains on iron absorption from infant cereal foods. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 964969.
34Hallberg, L, Brune, M, Erlandsson, M, et al. (1991) Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 112119.
35Minehane, A & Fairweather-Tait, S (1998) Effect of calcium supplementation on daily nonheme iron absorption and long term iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 96102.
36Bendich, A (2001) Calcium supplementation and iron status of females. Nutrition 17, 4651.
37Hallberg, L, Brune, M & Rossander, L (1989) Iron absorption in man: ascorbic acid and dose-dependent inhibition by phytate. Am J Clin Nutr 49, 140144.
38Hurrell, RF, Juillerat, MA, Reddy, MB, et al. (1992) Soy protein, phytate, and iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 573578.
39Kristensen, MB, Tetens, I, Jorgensen, ABA, et al. (2005) A decrease in iron status in young healthy women after long-term daily consumption of the recommended intake of fibre-rich wheat bread. Eur J Nutr 44, 334340.
40Hanson, LN, Engelman, HM, Lee Alekel, D, et al. (2006) Effects of soy isoflavones and phytate on homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and iron status in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 774780.
41Hurrell, RF (1997) Preventing iron deficiency through food fortification. Nutr Rev 55, 210222.
42World Health Organization (2001) Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Control and Prevention. A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: WHO.
43Galloway, R & McGuire, J (1994) Determinants of compliance with iron supplementation – supplies, side-effects, or psychology. Soc Sci Med 39, 381390.
44Skikne, BS, Flowers, CH & Cook, JD (1990) Serum transferrin receptor – a quantitative measure of tissue iron deficiency. Blood 75, 18701876.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed