Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Functional food science and substrate metabolism

  • W. H. M. Saris (a1), N. G. L. Asp (a2), I. Björck (a2), E. Blaak (a1), F. Bornet (a3), F. Brouns (a4), K. N. Frayn (a5), P. Fürst (a6), G. Riccardi (a7), M. Roberfroid (a8) and M. Vogel (a9)...

Abstract

The present review addresses the role of food constituents in the aetiology of metabolic conditions and chronic diseases, mostly related to energy metabolism and substrate regulation, such as obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Second, attention is paid to malnutrition, a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, which may be a cause of concern in Europe because of the increasing number of elderly people in the population. Finally, the role of diet during exercise, a condition of enormous substrate demands, is evaluated. Based on a critical evaluation of the existing knowledge in the literature, implications for future research in relation to functional foods are discussed.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Functional food science and substrate metabolism
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Functional food science and substrate metabolism
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Functional food science and substrate metabolism
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Dr W. H. M. Saris, fax +31 43 367 0976, email w.saris@hb.unimaas.nl

References

Hide All
Acheson, KJ, Zahorska-Markiewicz, B, Pittet, Ph, Anantharaman, K & Jéquier, E (1980) Caffeine and coffee. Their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 989997.
Ader, M & Bergman, RN (1987) Insulin sensitivity in the intact organism. Ballière's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1, 879910.
American Diabetes Association (1996) Nutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 20, S14S17.
American Diabetes Association (1997 a) Guide to diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes Care 20, S21–S24.
American Diabetes Association (1997 b) Clinical practice recommendations. Tests of glycaemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 20, S18S20.
Asp, NG (1996) Dietary carbohydrates: classification by chemistry and physiology. Food Chemistry 57, 914.
Asp, NG & Björck, I (1992) Resistant starch. Trends in Food Science and Technology 3, 111114.
Asp, NG, Amelsvoort, JMM & Hautvast, JGAJ (1996) Nutritional implications of resistant starch. Nutrition Research Reviews 9, 131.
Astrup, A, Toubro, S, Cannon, S, Hein, P, Breum, L & Madsen, J (1989) Caffeine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic metabolic and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 759767.
Austin, MA, King, M-C, Vranizan, KM & Krauss, RM (1990) Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. A proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease. Circulation 82, 495506.
Balsom, PD, Söderlund, K & Ekblom, B (1994) Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Medicine 18, 268280.
Bär, A, Kunz, M, Schiweek, H & Schwarz, E (1994) In Ullmanns's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, pp. 413437. Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft.
Bellisle, F, Blundell, JE, Fantino, M, Fern, E, Fletcher, RJ, Lambert, J, Roberfroid, M, Specter, S, Westenhöfer, J & Westerterp-Plantenga, MS (1998) Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions. British Journal of Nutrition 80, Suppl. 1, S173–S193.
Bendich, A (1991) Exercise and free radicals: effects of antioxidant vitamins. In Advances in Nutrition and Top Sport vol. 32, pp. 5978 [Brouns, F, Newsholme, E and Saris, WHM, editors]. Basel: Karger.
Björck, I (1996) Starch: nutritional aspects. In Carbohydrates in Food, pp. 505554 [ Eliasson, AC, editor]. New York, NY and Basel: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Björntorp, P (1991 a) Metabolic implications of body fat distribution. Diabetes Care 14, 11321143.
Björntorp, P (1991 b) Importance of fat as a support nutrient for energy metabolism of athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 9,7176.
Björntorp, P & Brodoff, BN (editors) (1992) Obesity. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott.
Blaak, EE & Saris, WHM (1995) Health aspects of various digestible carbohydrates. Nutrition Research 15, 15471573.
Blaak, EE & Saris, WHM (1996) Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate utilization after ingestion of different dietary carbohydrates. Metabolism 45, 12351242.
Blaak, EE, Baak, MA, Kemerink, GJ, Pakbiers, MTW, Heidendal, GAK & Saris, WHM (1994) Beta-adrenergic stimulation of whole body energy expenditure and skeletal muscle metabolism in relation to weight reduction in obese men. American Journal of Physiology 267, E316–E322.
Blundell, JE & Burley, VJ (1987) Satiation, satiety and the action of fibre on food intake. International Journal of Obesity 11, Suppl. 1, 925.
Bogardus, C, Lillioja, S, Mott, DM, Hollenbeck, C & Reaven, G (1985) Relationship between degree of obesity and in vivo insulin action in man. American Journal of Physiology 248, E286–E291.
Bolton-Smith, C & Woodward, M (1994) Dietary composition and fat to sugar ratios in relation to obesity. International Journal of Obesity 18, 820828.
Borkman, M, Storlien, LH, Pan, DA, Jenkins, AB, Chisholm, DJ & Campbell, LV (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty-acid composition of skeletal-muscle phospholipids. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 238244.
Bouchard, C (1992) Genetic aspects of human obesity. In Obesity, pp. 343351 [Björntorp, P and Brodoff, BN, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott.
Bouchard, C & Perusse, L (1993) Genetics of obesity. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 337354.
Bowman, BA & Forbes, AL (1993) Health effects of dietary fructose. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 72198235.
Brand Miller, JC (1994) Importance of GI in diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, Suppl., 747S752S.
Brighenti, F, Castellani, G, Benini, L, Casiraghi, M, Leopardi, E, Crovetti, R & Testolin, G (1995) Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 242247.
Brouns, F (1993) Nutritional Needs of Athletes. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brouns, F (1997 a) The effect of athletic training and dietary factors on the modulation of muscle glycogen. In The Clinical Pharmacology of Sport and Exercise, pp. 181193 [Reilly, T and Orne, M, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
Brouns, F (1997 b) Aspects of dehydration and rehydration in sport. In Nutrition and Fitness. Metabolic and Behavioral Aspects in Health and Disease, pp. 6380 [Simopoulos, AP and Pavlou, KN, editors]. Basel: Karger.
Brouns, F, Saris, WHM & Schneider, H. (1992) Rationale for upper limits of electrolyte replacement during exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 2, 229238.
Brouns, F & Van der Vusse, GJ (1998) Utilization of lipids during exercise in humans: metabolic and dietary constraints. British Journal of Nutrition 79, 117128.
Cameron-Smith, D, Colguhoun, EQ, Hettiarachchi, JM & Clark, MG (1990) Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin stimulate oxygen consumption in the perfused rat hindlimb. International Journal of Obesity 14, 259270.
Campfield, LA, Smith, FJ & Burn, P (1997) OB protein: a hormonal controller of central neural networks mediating behavorial, metabolic and neuroendocrine responses. Endocrinology and Metabolism 4, 81102.
Chandra, RK (1992) Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. Lancet 340, 11241127.
Clarkson, PM (1991) Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 9, 91116.
Colditz, GA, Giovanucci, E & Rimm, ER (1991) Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity in women and men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 4955.
Costill, DL (1988) Carbohydrates for exercise: dietary demands for optimal performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 9, 118.
Coyle, EF (1991 a) Timing and method of increased carbohydrate intake to cope with heavy training, competition and recovery. Journal of Sports Sciences 9, 2952.
Coyle, EF (1991 b) Carbohydrate feedings: effects on metabolism, performance and recovery. In Advances in Nutrition and Top Sport, vol. 32, pp. 114 [Brouns, F, Saris, WHM and Newsholme, EA, editors]. Basel: Karger.
Cummings, J (1993) Dietary fibre intakes in Europe. An overview. In Dietary Fibre Intakes in Europe. A Survey Conducted by Members of the Management Committee of COST 92: Metabolic and Physiological Aspects of Dietary Fibre in Food, pp. 1119 [Cummings, JH and Frolich, W, editors]. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Science, Research and Development.
Cummings, JH & Macfarlane, GT (1991) The control and consequences of bacterial fermentation in the human colon. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 70, 443459.
D'Alessio, DA, Kavle, EC, Mozzoli, MA, Smalley, KJ, Polansky, M, Kendrick, ZV, Owen, LR, Bushman, MC, Boden, G & Owen, OE (1992) Thermic effect of food in lean and obese men. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81, 17811789.
Després, J-P (1993) The insulin resistance-dyslipidemia syndrome: the most prevalent cause of coronary artery disease? Canadian Medical Association Journal 148, 13391340.
Després, J-P, Lamarche, B, Mauriège, P, Cantin, B, Dagenais, GR, Moorjani, S & Lupien, PJ (1996) Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 952957.
Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (1995) Recommendations for the nutritional management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolism 8, 14.
Drent, ML & Van der Veen, EA (1993) Lipase inhibition: a novel concept in the treatment of obesity. International Journal of Obesity 17, 241244.
Drewnowski, A, Brunzell, JD, Sande, K, Iverius, PH & Greenwood, MRC (1985) Currently available hypolipidaemic drugs and future therapeutic developments. Bailliére's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 9, 825847.
Felber, JP, Jéquier, E, Randin, JP, Tappy, L & Vaillamoz, D (1987) Comparative study of maltitol and sucrose by means of continuous indirect calorimetry. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 11, 250254.
Finley, JW & Leveille, GA (1996) Macronutrient substitutes. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, pp. 581595 [Ziegler, EE, editor]. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Finley, JW, Leveille, GA & Smith, ER (1994) Overview on salatrim, a family of low-calorie fats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42,432434.
Flatt, JP (1996) Glycogen levels and obesity. International Journal of Obesity 20, S1–S11.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1998) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Paper no. 66, Rome: FAO.
Food and Drug Administration (1996) In Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption: Olestra. Federal register 1/30/1996;21 CRF Part 1, docket no. 87F–0179.
Frayn, KN (1993) Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology 4, 197204.
Frayn, KN (1995) Physiological regulation of macronutrient balance. International Journal of Obesity 19, S4–S10.
Frayn, KN (1996) Metabolic Regulation: A Human Perspective, p. 243. Colchester: Portland Press.
Frayn, KN & Kingman, SM (1995) Dietary sugars and lipid metabolism in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl., 250S263S.
Frayn, KN, Williams, CM & Arner, P (1996) Are increased plasma non-eslertied fatty acid concentrations a risk marker for coronary heart disease and other chronic diseases? Clinical Science 90,243253.
Frost, G, Keogh, B, Smith, D, Akinsanya, K & Leeds, A (1996) The effect of low-glycaemic carbohydrate on insulin and glucose response in vivo and in vitro in patients with coronary heart disease. Metabolism 45, 669672.
Gerstein, HC & Yusuf, S (1996) Dysglycaernia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Lancet 347, 949950.
Gibney, MJ, Maloney, M & Shelley, E (1987) Food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults. British Journal of Nutrition 61, 129137.
Granfeldt, Y, Björck, I, Drews, A & Tovar, J (1992) An in vitro procedure based on chewing to predict metabolic response to starch in cereal and legume products. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 649660.
Granfeldt, Y, Hagander, B & Björck, I (1995) Metabolic responses to starch in oat and wheat products. On the importance of food structure in complete gelatinization or presence of viscous fibre. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 189199.
Griffin, BA & Zampelas, A (1995) Influence of dietary fatty acids on the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. Nutrition Research Reviews 8, 126.
Grinker, JA (1978) Obesity and sweet taste. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 10781087.
Haber, GB, Heaton, KW, Murphy, D & Burroughs, LF (1977). Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre: effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and insulin. Lancet, 679682.
Hamilton, CC & Anderson, JW (1992) Fiber and weight management. Journal of Florida Medical Association 9, 379381.
Hargreaves, M (1995) Skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise. In Exercise Metabolism, pp. 4172 [Har-greaves, EE, editor]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
Haussinger, D, Roth, E, Lang, F & Gerok, W (1993) Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease. Lancet 341, 13301332.
Hawley, JA, Dennis, SC & Noakes, TD (1992) Oxidation of carbohydrate ingested during prolonged endurance exercise. Sports Medicine 14, 2742.
Henry, CJK & Emery, B (1986) Effect of spiced food on metabolic rate. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 40C, 165168.
Hill, JO, Peters, JC, Lin, D, Yakuba, F, Greene, H & Swift, L (1993) Lipid accumulation and body fat distribution is influenced by type of dietary fat fed to rats. International Journal of Obesity 17, 223236.
Hill, JO & Prentice, AM (1995) Sugar and body weight regulation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl., 26452745.
Hokanson, JE & Austin, MA (1996) Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 213219.
Hollenbeck, CB & Coulston, AM (1991) Effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat intake on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 14, 774785.
Holm, J, Björk, I, Drews, A & Asp, NG (1986) A rapid method for the analysis of starch. Stärke 38, 224226.
Hornstra, G, Barth, CA, Galli, C, Mensink, RP, Mutanen, M, Riemersma, RA, Roberfroid, M, Salminen, K, Vansant, G & Verschuren, PM (1998) Functional food science and the cardiovascular system. British Journal of Nutrition 80, Suppl. 1, S113–S146.
Jenkins, DJA, Wolever, TMS, Jenkins, A, Brighenti, F, Vuksan, V, Venketshwer Rao, A, Cunnane, S, Ocana, A, Corey, P, Vezina, C, Connelly, P, Buckley, G & Patten, R (1991) Specific types of colonic fermentation may raise low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 141147.
Jenkins, D, Wolever, TMS, Jenkins, A, Giordano, C, Guidici, S, Thompson, L, Kalmusky, J, Josse, R & Wong, G (1986) Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpemickel bread. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 516520.
Jenkins, DJA, Wolever, TMS, Taylor, RH, Ghafari, H, Barker, HM, Fielden, H, Baldwin, JM, Bowling, AC, Newman, HC, Jenkins, AL & Goff, DV (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 362366.
Jenkins, DJA, Wolever, TMS, Taylor, RH, Griffiths, C, Krzeminska, K, James, BA, Lawne, JA, Bennet, CM, Goff, DV, Sarson, DL & Bloom, SR (1982) Slow release dietary carbohydrate improves second meal tolerance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35, 13391346.
Jeukendrup, AE, Saris WHM, van Diessen, R, Brouns, F & Wagen makers, AJM (1996) Effect of endogenous carbohydrate availability on oral medium chain triglycerides oxidation during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 80,949954.
Jeukendrup, AE, Saris, WHM & Wagenmakers, AJM (1998) Fat metabolism during exercise: a review. International Journal of Sports Medicine (In the Press).
Jones, JM (1996) Fat substitutes: nutritional promise or potential disaster? Chemistry & Industry 3, 494498.
Jones, PJH, Pencharz, JB & Clandinin, MB (1985) Whole body oxidation of dietary fatty acids: implications for energy utilization. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 769777.
Jones, PJH, Ridgen, JE, Phang, PT & Birmingham, CL (1992) Influence of dietary fat polyunsaturated to saturated ratio on energy substrate utilization in obesity. Metabolism 41,396401.
Jones, PJH & Schoeller, DA (1988) Polyunsaturated : saturated ratio of diet fat influences energy substrate utilization in the human. Metabolism 37, 145151.
Kieffer, F (1986) Trace elements: their importance for health and physical performance. Deutsche Zeitschriftfür Sportmedizin 37, 145151.
Klarlund Pedersen, B & Rohde, T (1997) Exercise, glutamine and the immune system. In Exercise Immunology, pp. 7588 [Klarlund Pedersen, B, editor]. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Klesges, RC, Mealer, CZ & Klesges, LM (1994) Effect of alcohol intake on resting energy expenditure in young women social drinkers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 805809.
Langkilde, A-M & Anderson, H (1994) In vivo quantification of resistant starch in EURESTA reference materials using the ileostomy model. In Proceedings of the Concluding Plenary Meeting of EURESTA. European FLAIR-Concerted Action no. 11 (COST 911), pp. 3132 [Asp, N-G, Van Amelsvoort, JMM and Hautvast, JGAJ, editors]. Wageningen: EURESTA.
Lemon, PWR (1991 a) Effect of exercise on protein requirements. Journal of Sports Sciences 9, 5370.
Lemon, PWR (1991 b) Protein and amino acid needs of the strength athlete. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1, 127145.
Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (1991) Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Caprenin. Bethesda, MD: LSRO/FASEB.
Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (1994) The Evaluation of Energy of Certain Sugar Alcohols Used as Food Ingredients. Bethesda, MD: LSRO/FASEB.
Liljeberg, H & Björck, I (1996) Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 886893.
Lissner, L, Levitsky, DA, Strupp, BJ, Kalkwarf, HJ & Roe, DA (1987) Dietary fat and the regulation of food intake in human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, 772778.
Livesey, G (1994) Energy value of resistant starch. In Proceedings of the Concluding Plenary Meeting of EURESTA. European FLAIR-Concerted Action no. 11 (COST 911), pp. 5662 [Asp, N-G, Van Amelsvoort, JMM and Hautvast, JGAJ, editors]. Wageningen: EURESTA.
Lovejoy, J & DiGirolamo, M (1992) Habitual dietary intake and insulin sensitivity in lean and obese adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 11741179.
Ma, J, Folsom, AR, Melnick, SL, Eckfeldt, JH, Sharrett, AR, Nabulsi, AA, Hutchinson, RG & Metcalf, PA (1995) Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 48, 927940.
Macdonald, I, Debry, G & Westerterp, K (1993) Alcohol and overweight. In Health Issues Related to Alcohol Consumption, pp. 263280 [Verschuren, PM, editor]. Washington, DC: ILSI Europe.
Macfarlane, GT & Cummings, JH (1991) The colonic flora, fermentation, and large bowel digestive function. In The Large Intestine: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Disease, pp. 5193 [Phillips, SF, Pemberton, JH and Shorter, RG, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
McKeigue, PM, Shah, B & Marmot, MG (1991) Relation of central obesity and insulin resistance with high diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk in South Asians. Lancet 337, 382386.
Matthews, DR, Hosker, JP, Rudenski, AS, Naylor, BA, Treacher, DF & Turner, RC (1985). Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and B-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.
Maughan, RJ (1991) Fluid and electrolyte loss and replacement in exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences 9, 117142.
Maughan, RJ, Leiper, JB & Shirreffs, SM (1997) Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat. British Journal of Sports Medicine 31, 175182.
Maughan, RJ & Noakes, TD (1991) Fluid replacement and exercise stress - a brief review of studies on fluid replacement and some guidelines for the athlete. Sports Medicine 12, 1631.
Mertz, W (1993) Chromium in human nutrition: a review. Journal of Nutrition 123, 626633.
Miller, DK, Morley, JE & Rubenstein, LZ (1995) An overview of international aging and nutrition. In Geriatric Nutrition, pp. 14 [Morley, JE, Glick, Z and Rubenstein, LZ, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Miller, WC, Lindermann, AK, Wallace, J & Nierderpruem, M (1990) Diet composition, energy intake and exercise in relation to body fat in men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52,426430.
Mitchell, BD, Kammerer, CM, Mahaney, MC, Blangero, J, Comuzzie, AG, Atwood, LD, Haffner, SM, Stern, MP & MacCluer, JW (1996) Genetic analysis of the IRS. Pleiotropic effects of genes influencing insulin levels on lipoprotein and obesity measures. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 16, 281288.
Mitsuoka, T, Hata, Y & Takahashi, Y (1986) Effects of long term intake of Neosugar on intestinal flora and serum lipids. In Proceedings of the 3rd Neosugar Research Conference, topic 14. Tokyo.
Morley, JE (1995) Anorexia of aging and protein-energy-under-nutrition. In Geriatric Nutrition, pp. 7578 [Morley, JE, Glick, Z and Rubenstein, LZ, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Move, M & Bohmer, T (1991) Anorexia of aging. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 39, 10891092.
Nestel, PJ (1990) Effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid metabolism. Annual Review of Nutrition 10, 149167.
Newsholme, EA & Start, C (1973) Adipose tissue and the regulation of fat metabolism. In Regulation in Metabolism, pp. 195246 [Newsholme, EA and Start, C, editors]. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Nicklas, BJ, Goldberg, AP, Bunyard, LB & Poehlman, ET (1995) Visceral adiposity is associated with increased lipid oxidation in obese, postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 918922.
Nilsson, LH & Hultman, E (1974) Liver and muscle glycogen in man after glucose and fructose ingestion. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 33, 510.
Nuttall, FQ (1993) Dietary fiber in the management of diabetes. Diabetes 42, 503508.
Pan, DA, Hulbert, AJ & Storlien, LH (1994) Dietary fats, membrane phospholipids, and obesity. Journal of Nutrition 124, 14441565.
Parillo, M, Giacco, R, Riccardi, G, Pacioni, D & Rivellese, A (1985) Different glucaemic responses to pasta, bread and potatoes in diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine 2, 374377.
Parillo, M & Riccardi, G (1985) Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. Diabète et Metabolisme 21, 391401.
Perrotti, N, Santoro, D, Genovese, S, Giacco, A, Rivellese, A & Riccardi, G (1984) Effect of digestible carbohydrates of glucose control in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 7, 354359.
Prentice, AM, Black, AE, Coward, WA, Davies, HL, Goldberg, GR, Murgatroyd, PR, Ashford, J, Sawyer, M & Whitehead, RG (1986) High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. British Medical Journal 292,983987.
Prentice, AM & Jebb, SA (1995) Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? British Medical Journal 311, 437439.
Prentice, AM & Poppitt, SD (1996) Importance of energy density and macronutrients in the regulation of energy intake. International Journal of Obesity 20, S18–S23.
Ravussin, E, Lillioja, S, Knowler, WC, Cristin, L, Freymond, D, Abbot, WGH, Boyce, V, Howard, BV & Bogardus, C (1988) Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body weight gain. New England Journal of Medicine 318, 467472.
Reaven, GM (1995) Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiological Reviews 75, 473486.
Riccardi, G (1994) Diet, blood glucose control and long term complications of diabetes: a lesson from the diabetes control and complication trial (DCCT). Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease 4, 5960.
Riccardi, G & Rivellese, AA (1987) No indices for selection of carbohydrate foods in the diabetic diet: hopes and limitations. Diabetic Medicine 4, 140143.
Riccardi, G & Rivellese, AA (1991) Effects of dietary fiber and carbohydrate on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism, in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 14, 115125.
Ritz, P, Krempf, M, Cloarec, D, Champ, M & Charbonnel, B (1991) Comparative continuous indirect calorimetry study of two carbohydrates with different glycemic indices. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 855859.
Rivellese, AA, Maffettone, A, Lovine, C, Di Marino, L, Annuzzi, G, Mancini, M & Riccardi, G (1996) Long term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Diabetes Care 19, 12071213.
Rolls, RJ & Shide, DJ (1992) The influence of dietary fat on food intake and body weight. Nutrition Reviews 50, 283290.
Salmerón, J, Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Colditz, GA, Spiegelman, D, Jenkins, DJ, Stampfer, MJ, Wing, AL & Willett, WC (1997 a) Dietary fiber, glycaemic load and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545550.
Salmerón, J, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Manson, JE, Wing, AL & Willett, WC (1997 b) Dietary fiber, glycaemic load and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Journal of the American Medical Association 277, 472477.
Saris, WHM, van Erp-Baart, MA, Brouns, F, Westerterp, KR & ten Hoor, F (1989) Study on food intake and energy expenditure during extreme sustained exercise: the Tour de France. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10, S26–S31.
Sawka, MN & Pandolf, KB (1990) Effects of body water loss on physiological function and exercise performance. In Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Fluid Homeostasis During Exercise, vol. 3, pp. 138 [Gisolfi, CV and Lamb, DR, editors]. Camel: Benchmark Press.
Scheppach, W (1994) Effects of short-chain fatty acids on gut morphology and function. Gut 35, Suppl. 1, 535538.
Scheppach, W, Fabian, C, Sachs, M & Kasper, H (1988) The effect of starch malabsorption on faecal short-chain fatty acid excretion in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23, 755759.
Schiweck, H & Ziesenitz, SC (1996) Physiological properties of polyols in comparison with metabolisable saccharides. In Advances in Sweeteners, pp. 5684 [Grenby, TH, editor]. Glasgow: Blackie.
Schutz, Y & Jéquier, E (1989) Failure of dietary fat intake to promote fat oxidation: a factor favoring the development of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 307314.
Seaton, TB, Welle, SL, Warenko, MK & Campbell, RG (1986) Thermic effect of medium chain and long chain triglycerides in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, 630634.
Segal, KR, Edano, A & Tomas, MB (1990) Thermic effect of a meal over 3 and 6 hours in lean and obese men. Metabolism 39, 985992.
Seidell, JC (1997) What is the cost of obesity? International Journal of Obesity 21, Suppl. 2, S1.
Shechter, Y (1990) Insulin-mimetic effects of vanadate. Possible implications for future treatment of diabetes. Diabetes 39, 15.
Sonko, BJ, Prentice, AM, Murgatroyd, PR, Goldberg, GR, de Ven, MLHM & Coward, WA (1994) Effect of alcohol on postmeal fat storage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 619625.
Stamler, J, Vaccaro, O, Neaton, J & Wentworth, D (1993) Diabetes, other risk factors and 12 years cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the multiple risk factors intervention trial. Diabetes Care 16, 434441.
Stock, MJ (1989) New approaches to the control of obesity in animals and their clinical potential. In Nutrition in the Prevention of Disease, pp. 3237 [Somogyi, JC, editor]. Basel: Kärger.
Storlien, LH, Baur, LA, Kriketors, AD, Pan, DA, Cooney, GJ, Jenkins, AB, Calvert, GD & Campbell, LV (1996) Dietary fats and insulin action. Diabetologia 39, 621631.
Sugano, M, Watanabe, S, Kishi, A, Izume, M & Ohtakara, A (1988) Hypocholesterolemic action of chitosans with different viscosity in rats. Lipids 23, 187191.
Suter, PM, Schutz, Y & Jéquier, E (1992) The effect of ethanol on fat storage in healthy subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 326, 983987.
Tappy, L, Randin, JP, Felber, JP, Chiolero, R, Simonson, DC, Jéquier, E & DeFronzo, RA (1986) Comparison of the thermogenic effect of fructose and glucose in normal humans. American Journal of Physiology 250, E718–E724.
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (1993) The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long term complications in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 329, 977986.
Thompson, L, Button, C & Jenkins, D (1987) Phytic acid and calcium affect the in vitro rate of navy bean starch digestion and blood glucose response in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 467.
Thorburn, A & Proietto, J (1993) Carbohydrate fermentation decreases hepatic glucose output in healthy subjects. Metabolism 42, 780785.
Torún, B & Viteri, FE (1988) Protein-energy malnutrition. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, pp. 746773 [Shils, ME and Young, VR, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
Tremblay, A, Wouters, E, Wenker, M, St-Pierre, S, Bouchard, C & Després, JP (1995) Alcohol and high fat diet: a combination favoring overfeeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62,639644.
Truswell, A (1994) Food carbohydrates and plasma lipids - an update. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, Suppl. 9, 710S718S.
Truswell, A, Seach, J & Thorburn, A (1988) Incomplete absorption of pure fructose in healthy subjects and the facilitating effect of glucose. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 14241430.
Van der Beek, EJ (1985) Vitamins and endurance training. Food for running or faddisch claims. Sports Medicine 2, 175197.
Van Erp-Baart, AMJ, Saris, WHM, Binkhorst, RA, Vos, JA & Elvers, JWH (1989 a) Nationwide survey on nutritional habits in elite athletes. Part I. Energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10, S3–S10.
Van Erp-Baart, AMJ, Saris, WHM, Binkhorst, RA, Vos, JA & Elvers, JWH (1989 b) Nationwide survey on nutritional habits in elite athletes. Part 11: Mineral and vitamin intake. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10, S11–S16.
Van Hall, G, Raaymakers, J, Saris, WHM & Wagenmakers, A (1995) Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance. Journal of Physiology 486, 789794.
VanItallie, TB (1992) Body weight, morbidity and longevity. In Obesity, pp. 361369 [Björntorp, P and Brodoff, BN, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company.
Venter, C, Vorster, H & Cummings, J (1990). Effect of dietary propionate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85, 549553.
Vessby, B (1995) Nutrition, lipids and diabetes mellitus. Current Opinion in Lipidology 6, 37.
Vessby, B, Tengblad, S & Lithell, H (1994) Insulin sensitivity is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and skeletal muscle phospholipids in 70-year-old men. Diabetologia 37, 10441050.
Virtanen, SM & Aro, A (1994) Dietary factors in the aetiology of diabetes. Annals of Medicine 26, 460478.
Wagenmakers, AJM (1991) L-Camitine supplementation and per- formance in man. In Advances in Nutrition and Top Sport, vol. 32, pp. 110127 [Brouns, F, Saris, WHM and Newsholme, EA, editors]. Basel: S. Karger.
Wagenmakers, AJM, Beckers, EJ, Brouns, F, Kuipers, H, Soeters, PB & van der Vusse, GJ (1991) Carbohydrate supplementation, glycogen depletion, and amino acid metabolism during exercise. American Journal of Physiology 260, E883–E890.
Waterlow, JC (1992) Some general questions. In Protein-Energy Malnutrition, pp. 1425 [Waterlow, JC, editor]. London: Edward Arnold.
Westrate, JA, Wunnink, I, Deurenberg, P & Hautvast, JGAJ (1990) Alcohol and its acute effects on resting metabolic rate and diet induced thermogenesis. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 413425.
White, JR Jr & Campbell, RK (1993) Magnesium and diabetes: a review. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 27,775780.
World Health Organization Study Group (1994) Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Wursch, P, Vedovo, S & Koellreutter, B (1986) Cell structure and starch nature as key determinants of the digestion rate of starch in legumes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 2529.
Yamashita, K, Kawai, K & Itakura, M (1984) Effects of fructo-oligosaccharides on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic subjects. Nutrition Research 4, 961966.
Young, VR (1992) Macronutrient needs in the elderly. Nutrition Reviews 50,454462.
Yudkin, J (1988) Sucrose, coronary heart disease, diabetes and obesity: do hormones provide a link? American Heart Journal 115, 493498.
Zurlo, F, Lillioja, S, Esposito-Del Punete, A, Nyomba, BL, Raz, I, Saad, MF, Swinbum, BA, Bowler, WC, Bogardus, C & Ravussin, E (1990) Low ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation as predictor of weight gain: study of 24-h RQ. American Journal of Physiology 259, E650E657.

Keywords

Functional food science and substrate metabolism

  • W. H. M. Saris (a1), N. G. L. Asp (a2), I. Björck (a2), E. Blaak (a1), F. Bornet (a3), F. Brouns (a4), K. N. Frayn (a5), P. Fürst (a6), G. Riccardi (a7), M. Roberfroid (a8) and M. Vogel (a9)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed