Lim, SS, Vos, T, Flaxman, AD, et al. (2012) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet
World Health Organization (2009) Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: WHO.
Hall, JN, Moore, S, Harper, SB, et al. (2009) Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Prev Med
World Health Organization (2011) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: WHO.
Thompson, FE & Subar, AF (2013) Dietary assessment methodology. In Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease, 3rd ed, [AM Coulston, CJ Boushey and MG Ferruzzi, editors]. Oxford: Elsevier Inc.
Coyne, T, Ibiebele, TI, McNaughton, S, et al. (2005) Evaluation of brief dietary questions to estimate vegetable and fruit consumption – using serum carotenoids and red-cell folate. Public Health Nutr
World Health Organization (2008) WHO STEPS surveillance manual: the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. http://www.who.int/chp/steps/manual/en/ (accessed September 2015).
Kristal, AR, Vizenor, NC, Patterson, RE, et al. (2000) Precision and bias of food frequency-based measures of fruit and vegetable intakes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Smith-Warner, SA, Elmer, PJ, Fosdick, L, et al. (1997) Reliability and comparability of three dietary assessment methods for estimating fruit and vegetable intakes. Epidemiology
Field, AE, Colditz, GA, Fox, MK, et al. (1998) Comparison of 4 questionnaires for assessment of fruit and vegetable intake. Am J Public Health
National Institute of Nutrition (2010) A Review of the Nutrition Situation in Vietnam 2009–2010. Hanoi: Medical Publishing House.
Kanungsukkasem, U, Ng, N, Hoang, VM, et al. (2009) Fruit and vegetable consumption in rural adults population in INDEPTH HDSS sites in Asia. Glob Health Action
Pham, HL, Au, BT, Blizzard, L, et al. (2009) Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: results from a STEPS survey. BMC Public Health
Bui, TV, Blizzard, L, Luong, KN, et al. (2015) Declining prevalence of tobacco smoking in Vietnam. Nicotine Tob Res
WHO Expert Consultation (2004) Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet
Kish, L (1995) Survey Sampling. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Zou, G (2004) A modified Poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. Am J Epidemiol
Peel, MC, Finlayson, BL & McMahon, TA (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci
Satheannoppakao, W, Aekplakorn, W & Pradipasen, M (2009) Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. Public Health Nutr
Locke, E, Coronado, GD, Thompson, B, et al. (2009) Seasonal variation in fruit and vegetable consumption in a rural agricultural community. J Am Diet Assoc
Padrao, P, Laszczynska, O, Silva-Matos, C, et al. (2012) Low fruit and vegetable consumption in Mozambique: results from a WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Br J Nutr
Kosulwat, V (2002) The nutrition and health transition in Thailand. Public Health Nutr
Shohaimi, S, Welch, A, Bingham, S, et al. (2004) Residential area deprivation predicts fruit and vegetable consumption independently of individual educational level and occupational social class: a cross sectional population study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). J Epidemiol Community Health
Cole, TJ (2005) Re: ‘why evidence for the fetal origins of adult disease might be a statistical artifact: the “reversal paradox” for the relation between birth weight and blood pressure in later life’. Am J Epidemiol
162, 394–395 author reply 5.
National Institute of Nutrition (2003) 2000 General Nutrition Survey. Hanoi: Medical Publishing House.
Kim, DJ & Holowaty, EJ (2003) Brief, validated survey instruments for the measurement of fruit and vegetable intakes in adults: a review. Prev Med