1Jump, DB (2002) The biochemistry of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 277, 8755–8758.
2Siddiqui, RA, Shaikh, SR, Sech, LA, Yount, HR, Stillwell, W & Zaloga, GP (2004) Omega 3-fatty acids: health benefits and cellular mechanisms of action. Mini Rev Med Chem 4, 859–871.
3Rustan, AC & Drevon, CA (2001) Fatty acids: structures and properties. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
4Miles, EA, Aston, L & Calder, PC (2003) In vitro effects of eicosanoids derived from different 20-carbon fatty acids on T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cytokine production in human whole-blood cultures. Clin Exp Allergy 33, 624–632.
5Serhan, CN (2005) Novel omega-3-derived local mediators in anti-inflammation and resolution. Pharmacol Ther 105, 7–21.
6Serhan, CN & Savill, J (2005) Resolution of inflammation: the beginning programs the end. Nat Immunol 6, 1191–1197.
7Hansen, JB, Grimsgaard, S, Nilsen, H, Nordoy, A & Bonaa, KH (1998) Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fatty acid absorption, incorporation into serum phospholipids and postprandial triglyceridemia. Lipids 33, 131–138.
8Stulnig, TM (2003) Immunomodulation by polyunsaturated fatty acids: mechanisms and effects. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 132, 310–321.
9James, MJ, Gibson, RA & Cleland, LG (2000) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr 71, Suppl. 1, 343S–348S.
10Mishra, A, Chaudhary, A & Sethi, S (2004) Oxidized omega-3 fatty acids inhibit NF-κB activation via a PPARα-dependent pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24, 1621–1627.
11Devereux, G & Seaton, A (2005) Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115, 1109–1118.
12Mickleborough, TD & Rundell, KW (2005) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 1335–1346.
13Hoff, S, Seiler, H, Heinrich, J, et al. (2005) Allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis are associated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet and in red blood cell membranes. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 1071–1080.
14Nagakura, T, Matsuda, S, Shichijyo, K, Sugimoto, H & Hata, K (2000) Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J 16, 861–865.
15Watanabe, T & Kuroda, Y (1999) The effect of a newly developed ointment containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. J Med Invest 46, 173–177.
16Abba, C, Mussa, PP, Vercelli, A & Raviri, G (2005) Essential fatty acids supplementation in different-stage atopic dogs fed on a controlled diet. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 89, 203–207.
17Mueller, RS, Fettman, MJ, Richardson, K, Hansen, RA, Miller, A, Magowitz, J & Ogilvie, GK (2005) Plasma and skin concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids before and after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Am J Vet Res 66, 868–873.
18Mueller, RS, Fieseler, KV, Fettman, MJ, Zabel, S, Rosychuk, RA, Ogilvie, GK & Greenwalt, TL (2004) Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on canine atopic dermatitis. J Small Anim Pract 45, 293–297.
19Zhang, P, Smith, R, Chapkin, RS & McMurray, DN (2005) Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate murine Th1/Th2 balance toward the Th2 pole by suppression of Th1 development. J Nutr 135, 1745–1751.
20Yokoyama, A, Hamazaki, T, Ohshita, A, Kohno, N, Sakai, K, Zhao, GD, Katayama, H & Hiwada, K (2000) Effect of aerosolized docosahexaenoic acid in a mouse model of atopic asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 123, 327–332.
21Worm, M & Henz, BM (1997) Molecular regulation of human IgE synthesis. J Mol Med 75, 440–447.
22Bacharier, LB & Geha, RS (2000) Molecular mechanisms of IgE regulation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105, S547–S558.
23Fogh, K, Herlin, T & Kragballe, K (1989) Eicosanoids in skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 are present in biologically active concentrations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 83, 450–455.
24Koro, O, Furutani, K, Hide, M, Yamada, S & Yamamoto, S (1999) Chemical mediators in atopic dermatitis: involvement of leukotriene B4 released by a type I allergic reaction in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103, 663–670.
25Lee, TH, Menica-Huerta, JM, Shih, C, Corey, EJ, Lewis, RA & Austen, KF (1984) Characterization and biologic properties of 5,12-dihydroxy derivatives of eicosapentaenoic acid, including leukotriene B5 and the double lipoxygenase product. J Biol Chem 259, 2383–2389.
26Schweigert, FJ, Trupschuch, A & Hantschel, C (2002) Modulation of absorption of β-carotene and tissue accumulation of β-carotene and vitamin A by different surfactants in rats. Ann Nutr Metab 46, 200–204.
27Rühl, R, Dahten, A, Schweigert, FJ, Herz, U & Worm, M (2003) Inhibition of IgE-production by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands. J Invest Dermatol 121, 757–764.
28Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
29Rühl, R, Garcia, A, Schweigert, FJ & Worm, M (2004) Modulation of cytokine production by low and high retinoid diets in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 74, 279–284.
30Worm, M, Herz, U, Krah, JM, Renz, H & Henz, BM (2001) Effects of retinoids on in vitro and in vivo IgE production. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 124, 233–236.
31Kew, S, Mesa, MD, Tricon, S, Buckley, R, Minihane, AM & Yaqoob, P (2004) Effects of oils rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on immune cell composition and function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 674–681.
32Horrobin, DF (1993) Fatty acid metabolism in health and disease: the role of Δ-6-desaturase. Am J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 5, 732S–737S.
33Di Stasi, D, Bernasconi, R, Marchioli, R, Marfisi, RM, Rossi, G, Tognoni, G & Tacconi, MC (2004) Early modifications of fatty acid composition in plasma phospholipids, platelets and mononucleates of healthy volunteers after low doses of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 60, 183–190.
34Nikolaidis, MG, Petridou, A & Mougios, V (2005) Comparison of the phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid profile of rat serum, skeletal muscle and heart. Physiol Res 55, 259–265.
35Aro, A (2003) Fatty acid composition of serum lipids: is this marker of fat intake still relevant for identifying metabolic and cardiovascular disorders? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 13, 253–255.
36Korotkova, M, Telemo, E, Yamashiro, Y, Hanson, LA & Strandvik, B (2004) The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in maternal diet influences the induction of neonatal immunological tolerance to ovalbumin. Clin Exp Immunol 137, 237–244.
37Schweigert, FJ (2001) Inflammation-induced changes in the nutritional biomarkers serum retinol and carotenoids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4, 477–481.
38Verdier, F, Burnett, R, Michelet-Habchi, C, Moretto, P, Fievet-Groyne, F & Sauzeat, E (2005) Aluminium assay and evaluation of the local reaction at several time points after intramuscular administration of aluminium containing vaccines in the Cynomolgus monkey. Vaccine 23, 1359–1367.
39Jefferson, T, Rudin, M & Di Pietrantonj, C (2004) Adverse events after immunisation with aluminium-containing DTP vaccines: systematic review of the evidence. Lancet Infect Dis 4, 84–90.
40Sarin, S, Gupta, V & Gill, KD (1997) Alterations in lipid composition and neuronal injury in primates following chronic aluminium exposure. Biol Trace Elem Res 59, 133–143.
41Berthon, G & Dayde, S (1992) Why aluminum phosphate is less toxic than aluminum hydroxide. J Am Coll Nutr 11, 340–348.
42Caughey, GE, Mantzioris, E, Gibson, RA, Cleland, LG & James, MJ (1996) The effect on human tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1(production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 116–122.
43Jakschik, BA, Sams, AR, Sprecher, H & Needleman, P (1980) Fatty acid structural requirements for leukotriene biosynthesis. Prostaglandins 20, 401–410.
44Malkowski, MG, Thuresson, ED, Lakkides, KM, Rieke, CJ, Micielli, R, Smith, WL & Garavito, RM (2001) Structure of eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids in the cyclooxygenase site of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1. J Biol Chem 276, 37547–37555.
45Leitch, AG, Lee, TH, Ringel, EW, Prickett, JD, Robinson, DR, Pyne, SG, Corey, EJ, Drazen, JM, Austen, KF & Lewis, RA (1984) Immunologically induced generation of tetraene and pentaene leukotrienes in the peritoneal cavities of menhaden-fed rats. J Immunol 132, 2559–2565.
46Saku, N, Kobayashi, J & Kitamura, S (1999) Eicosapentaenoic acid modulates arachidonic acid metabolism in rat alveolar macrophages activated by silica. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 61, 51–54.
47Obata, T, Nagakura, T, Masaki, T, Maekawa, K & Yamashita, K (1999) Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits prostaglandin D2 generation by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase-2 in cultured human mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy 29, 1129–1135.
48Corey, EJ, Shih, C & Cashman, JR (1983) Docosahexaenoic acid is a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin but not leukotriene biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 3581–3584.
49Arcoleo, F, Milano, S, D'Agostino, P & Cillari, E (1995) Effect of exogenous leukotriene B4 (LTB4) on BALB/c mice splenocyte production of Th1 and Th2 lymphokines. Int J Immunopharmacol 17, 457–463.
50Calder, PC (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. Lipids 36, 1007–1024.