1Trewin, D (2006) National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2004–05. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
2Craig, ME, Femia, G, Broyda, V, et al. (2007) Type 2 diabetes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and adolescents in New South Wales. Med J Aust 186, 497–499.
3McDermott, RA, McCulloch, BG, Campbell, SK, et al. (2007) Diabetes in the Torres Strait Islands of Australia: better clinical systems but significant increase in weight and other risk conditions among adults, 1999–2005. Med J Aust 186, 505–508.
4Thorburn, AW (2005) Prevalence of obesity in Australia. Obes Rev 6, 187–189.
5Wang, Z & Hoy, WE (2004) Waist circumference, body mass index, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal people. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 888–893.
6Jones, CO & White, NG (1994) Adiposity in aboriginal people from Arnhem Land Australia: variation in degree and distribution associated with age, sex and lifestyle. Ann Hum Biol 21, 207–227.
7Deurenberg, P, Yap, M & van Staveren, WA (1998) Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups. Int J Obes 22, 1164–1171.
8Kagawa, M, Kerr, D, Uchida, H, et al. (2006) Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men. Br J Nutr 95, 1002–1007.
9Piers, LS, Rowley, KG, Soares, MJ, et al. (2003) Relation of adiposity and body fat distribution to body mass index in Australians of Aboriginal and European ancestry. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 956–963.
10Hitchcock, NE, Gracey, M, Maller, RA, et al. (1987) Physical size of 1887 Aboriginal schoolchildren in the Kimberley region. Med J Aust 146, 415–419.
11Deurenberg, P, Deurenberg-Yap, M, Foo, LF, et al. (2003) Differences in body composition between Singapore Chinese, Beijing Chinese and Dutch children. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 405–409.
12Rush, EC, Puniani, K, Valencia, ME, et al. (2003) Estimation of body fatness from body mass index and bioelectrical impedance: comparison of New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 1394–1401.
13National Health and Medical Research Council (1999) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans. Canberra: NHMRC.
14International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (2001) International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. Canberra: ISAK.
15Gore, C, Norton, K & Olds, T (1996) . In Anthropometrica, pp. 395–411 [Norton, K and Olds, T, editors]. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
16Carter, JEL & Heath, BH (1990) Somatotyping – Development and Application. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
17Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM, et al. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 1240–1245.
18Goran, MI, Allison, DB & Poehlman, ET (1995) Issues relating to normalization of body fat content in men and women. Int J Obes 19, 638–643.
19Ruben, AR & Walker, AC (1995) Malnutrition among rural aboriginal children in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Med J Aust 162, 400–403.
20Rousham, EK & Gracey, M (1997) Persistent growth faltering among aboriginal infants and young children in north-west Australia: a retrospective study from 1969 to 1993. Acta Paediatr 86, 46–50.
21Sayers, S & Powers, J (1997) Risk factors for aboriginal low birthweight, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth in the Darwin Health Region. Aust N Z J Public Health 21, 524–530.
22Lee, AJ, Darcy, AM, Leonard, D, et al. (2002) Food availability, cost disparity and improvement in relation to accessibility and remoteness in Queensland. Aust N Z J Public Health 26, 266–272.
23Barker, DJ & Clark, PM (1997) Fetal undernutrition and disease in later life. Rev Reprod 2, 105–112.
24Reyes, ME, Tan, SK & Malina, RM (2003) Urban–rural contrasts in the growth status of school children in Oaxaca. Mexico. Ann Hum Biol 30, 693–713.
25Lourenço, AE, Santos, RV, Orellana, JD, et al. (2008) Nutrition transition in Amazonia: obesity and socioeconomic change in the Suruí Indians from Brazil. Am J Hum Biol 20, 564–571.
26Deurenberg, P, Bhaskaran, K & Lian, PL (2003) Singaporean Chinese adolescents have more subcutaneous adipose tissue than Dutch Caucasians of the same age and body mass index. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 12, 261–265.
27Lovejoy, JC, de la Bretonne, JA, Klemperer, M, et al. (1996) Abdominal fat distribution and metabolic risk factors: effects of race. Metabolism 45, 1119–1124.
28Tanaka, S, Horimai, C & Katsukawa, F (2003) Ethnic differences in abdominal visceral fat accumulation between Japanese, African-Americans, and Caucasians: a meta-analysis. Acta Diabetol 40, S302–S304.
29Kadowaki, T, Sekikawa, A, Murata, K, et al. (2006) Japanese men have larger areas of visceral adipose tissue than Caucasian men in the same levels of waist circumference in a population-based study. Int J Obes 30, 1163–1165.
30He, Q, Horlick, M, Thornton, J, et al. (2002) Sex and race differences in fat distribution among Asian, African-American, and Caucasian prepubertal children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 2164–2170.
31Byrne, NM, Weinsier, RL, Hunter, GR, et al. (2003) Influence of distribution of lean body mass on resting metabolic rate after weight loss and weight regain: comparison of responses in white and black women. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1368–1373.
32Ashwell, M & Hsieh, SD (2005) Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 56, 303–307.
33McCarthy, HD & Ashwell, M (2006) A study of central fatness using waist-to-height ratios in UK children and adolescents over two decades supports the simple message – ‘keep your waist circumference to less than half your height’. Int J Obes 30, 988–992.
34Kagawa, M, Hills, AP & Binns, CW (2007) The usefulness of the waist-to-height ratio to predict trunk fat accumulation in Japanese and Australian Caucasian young males living in Australia. Int J Body Comp Res 5, 57–63.