Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method

  • J. Singh (a1), A. M. Prentice (a1), E. Diaz (a1), W.A. Coward (a1), J. Ashford (a1), M. Sawyer (a1) and R. G. Whitehead (a1)...

Abstract

The doubly-labelled water (2H218O) method was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) in ten non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL), six pregnant (P) and fourteen lactating (L) women in a rural Gambian community. Measurements were made on free-living subjects at a period of peak energetic stress when high agricultural work loads coincided with a hungry season to induce moderately severe negative energy balance. TEE averaged 10.42 (SD 2.08) MJ/d, equivalent to 1.95 (SD 0.38) times resting metabolic rate (RMR). The energy cost of physical activity plus thermogenesis, derived as TEE – RMR, averaged 4.94 (SD 1.96) MJ/d. Expressed per kg body-weight (103 kJ/kg per d) this component of expenditure was 2.5 times greater than comparative values from inactive, affluent women studied previously (39 kJ/kg per d). Estimated energy intake (EI) in a subset of the women (n 13) was only 4.80 (SD 1.58) MJ/d, yielding an apparent deficit of 6.08 MJ/d between EI and TEE. Weight changes suggested that endogenous fat oxidation accounted for only about 0.85 MJ/d, leaving an unexplained difference of over 5 MJ/d. Critical analysis of possible errors suggests that the new doubly-labelled water method has provided the most reliable estimates and that the estimates of EI were substantially in error. This finding has important consequences for other food intake studies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ashworth, A. (1968). An investigation of very low calorie intake reported in Jamaica. British Journal of Nutrition 22, 342345.
Black, A. E., Prentice, A. M. & Coward, W. A. (1986). Use of food quotients to predict respiratory quotients for the doubly-labelled water method of measuring energy expenditure. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 40C, 381391.
Bleiberg, F., Brun, T. A., Goihmon, S. & Lippman, D. (1981). Food intake and energy expenditure of male and female farmers from Upper Volta. British Journal of Nutrition 45, 505515.
Cole, T. J. (1989). In First Report on World Nutrition: First Update. UN Administrative Committee on Coordination Subcommittee on Nutrition, p. 35. New York: United Nations.
Coward, W. A. (1988). The 2H218O method – principles and practice. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 209218.
Coward, W. A. & Prentice, A. M. (1985). Isotope method for the measurement of carbon dioxide production in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 659661.
Coward, W. A., Prentice, A. M., Murgatroyd, R. P., Davies, H. L., Cole, T. J., Sawyer, M., Goldberg, G. R., Halliday, D. & Mcnamara, J. P. (1985). Measurement of CO2 and water production rates in man using 2H, 18O-labelled H2O; comparisons between calorimeter and isotope values. In Human Energy Metabolism, pp. 126128 [van Es, A. J. H., editor]. Wageningen: Euro-Nutr.
Coward, W. A., Roberts, S. B., Prentice, A. M. & Lucas, A. (1986). The 2H218O method for energy expenditure measurements – clinical possibilities, necessary assumptions and limitations. In Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Research, Proceedings of 7th ESPEN Congress, pp. 169177. Basel: Karger.
Dugdale, A. E. & Payne, P. R. (1987). A model of seasonal changes in energy balance. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 19, 231245.
Durnin, J. V. G. A. (1979). Energy balance in man with particular reference to low intakes. Bibliotheca Nutricia et Dietetica 27, 110.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985). Report of a Joint Expert Consultation. Energy and Protein Requirements. WHO Technical Report Series no. 724. WHO: Geneva.
Hudson, G. J., John, P. M. V. & Paul, A. A. (1980). Variation in the composition of Gambian foods: the importance of water in relation to energy and protein content. Ecology of Food Nutrition 10, 917.
James, W. P. T. & Shetty, P. S. (1982). Metabolic adaptations and energy requirements in developing countries. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 36C, 331336.
Lawrence, M. (1988). Day-to-day variations in the energy expenditure of rural Gambian women. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 39A.
Lawrence, M., Coward, W. A., Lawrence, F., Cole, T. J. & Whitehead, R. G. (1987a). Fat gain during pregnancy in rural African women: the effect of season and dietary status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 14421450.
Lawrence, M., Lawrence, F., Coward, W. A., Cole, T. J. & Whitehead, R. G. (1987b). Energy requirements of pregnancy in The Gambia. Lancet ii, 10721976.
Lawrence, M. & Whitehead, R. G. (1988). Physical activity and total energy expenditure of child-bearing Gambian village women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 145160.
Lifson, N., Gordon, G. B. & McClintock, R. (1955). Measurement of total carbon dioxide production by means of D218O. Journal of Applied Physiology 7, 704710.
Lifson, N. & McClintock, R. (1966). Theory of the use of the turnover rates of body water for measuring energy and material balance. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12, 4674.
Livingstone, M. B. E., Strain, J. J., Nevin, G. B., Barker, M. E., Hickey, R. J., McKenna, P. G., Prentice, A. M., Coward, W. A. & Whitehead, R. G. (1989). The use of weighed dietary records and the doubly-labelled (2H218O) water methods to compare energy intake and expenditure. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 48, 21A.
Norgan, N. G., Ferro-Luzzi, A. & Durnin, J. V. G. A. (1974). The energy and nutrient intake and the energy expenditure of 204 New Guinean adults. Transactions of the Royal Society London, Ser. B268, 309348.
Paul, A. A. & Muller, E. M. (1980). Seasonal variations in dietary intake in pregnant and lactating women in a rural Gambian village. In Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, pp. 105106 [Aebi, H. and Whitehead, R. G. editors]. Berne: Hans Huber.
Prentice, A. M. (1980). Variations in maternal dietary intake, birthweight and breastmilk output in The Gambia. In Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, pp. 167183 [Aebi, H. and Whitehead, R. G. editors]. Berne: Hans Huber.
Prentice, A. M. (1984). Adaptations to long-term low energy intake. In Energy Intake and Activity, pp. 130 [Pollitt, E. and Amante, P. editors]. New York: Alan R. Liss Inc.
Prentice, A. M. (1988). Applications of the 2H218O technique in free-living adults. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 259268.
Prentice, A. M., Black, A. E., Coward, W. A., Davies, H. L., Goldberg, G. R., Murgatroyd, P. R., Ashford, J., Sawyer, M. & Whitehead, R. G. (1986). High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. British Medical Journal 292, 983987.
Prentice, A. M., Coward, W. A., Davies, H. L., Murgatroyd, P. R., Black, A. E., Goldberg, G. R., Ashford, J. & Sawyer, M. (1985). Unexpectedly low levels of energy expenditure in healthy women. Lancet i, 14191422.
Prentice, A. M., Whitehead, R. G., Roberts, S. B. & Paul, A. A. (1981). Long-term energy balance in child-bearing Gambian women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 27902799.
Roberts, S. B., Paul, A. A., Cole, T. J. & Whitehead, R. G. (1982). Seasonal changes in activity, birth weight and lactational performance in rural Gambian women. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76, 668678.
Schoeller, D. A. (1983). Energy expenditure from doubly-labelled water: some fundamental considerations in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38, 9991005.
Schoeller, D. A. (1988). Measurement of energy expenditure in free-living humans using doubly-labelled water. Journal of Nutrition 118, 12781289.
Schoeller, D. A., Leitch, C. A & Brown, C. (1986). Doubly-labelled water method: in vivo oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation. American Journal of Physiology 251, R1137R1143.
Schoeller, D. A. & Taylor, P. B. (1987). Precision of the doubly labelled water method using the two-point calculation. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 41C, 215223.
Schoeller, D. A. & van Santen, E. (1982). Measurement of energy expenditure in humans by the doubly-labelled water method. Journal of Applied Physiology 53, 955959.
Vasquez-Velasquez, L. (1988). Energy expenditure and physical activity of malnourished Gambian infants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 233239.
Weir, J. B.de, V. (1949). New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. Journal of Physiology 109, 19.

Keywords

Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method

  • J. Singh (a1), A. M. Prentice (a1), E. Diaz (a1), W.A. Coward (a1), J. Ashford (a1), M. Sawyer (a1) and R. G. Whitehead (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed