1. Bendiksen, EÅ, Johnsen, CA, Olsen, HJ, et al. (2011) Sustainable aquafeeds: progress towards reduced reliance upon marine ingredients in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 314, 132–139.
2. Tocher, DR. (2015) Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and aquaculture in perspective. Aquaculture 449, 94–107.
3. Turchini, GM, Ng, W-K & Tocher, DR. (2010) Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
4. Sprague, M, Dick, JR & Tocher, DR. (2016) Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006–2015. Sci Rep 6, 21892.
5. Turchini, GM, Torstensen, BE & Ng, W-K. (2009) Fish oil replacement in finfish nutrition. Rev Aquac 1, 10–57.
6. Emery, JA, Smullen, RP, Keast, RSJ, et al. (2016) Viability of tallow inclusion in Atlantic salmon diet, as assessed by an on-farm grow out trial. Aquaculture 451, 289–297.
7. Francis, DS & Turchini, GM. (2017) Retro-engineering the protein sparing effect to preserve n-3 LC-PUFA from catabolism and optimise fish oil utilisation: a preliminary case study on juvenile Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 468, 184–192.
8. Nuez Ortin, W, Carter, C, Nichols, P, et al. (2015) Increasing deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA in Altlantic salmon smolt using high DHA and ALA oils. 2015 Aquaculture Europe, 20–23 October, Rotterdam, Holland (conference edited).
9. Torstensen, BE, Frøyland, L & Lie, Ø. (2004) Replacing dietary fish oil with increasing levels of rapeseed oil and olive oil – effects on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissue and lipoprotein lipid composition and lipogenic enzyme activities. Aquacult Nutr 10, 175–192.
10. Hixson, SM, Parrish, CC, Xue, X, et al. (2017)) Growth performance, tissue composition, and gene expression responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed varying levels of different lipid sources. Aquaculture 467, 76–88.
11. Norambuena, F, Morais, S, Emery, JA, et al. (2015) Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon as affected by water temperature. PLOS ONE 10, e0143622.
12. Tocher, DR. (2003) Metabolism and functions of lipids and fatty acids in teleost fish. Rev Fish Sci 11, 107–184.
13. Torstensen, BE, Lie, Ø & Frøyland, L. (2000) Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) – effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources. Lipids 35, 653–664.
14. Karalazos, V, Bendiksen, EÅ, Dick, JR, et al. (2011) Influence of the dietary protein: lipid ratio and fish oil substitution on fatty acid composition and metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared at high water temperatures. Br J Nutr 105, 1012–1025.
15. Monroig, Ó, Zheng, X, Morais, S, et al. (2010) Multiple genes for functional ∆6 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): gene and cDNA characterization, functional expression, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1801, 1072–1081.
16. Nakamura, MT & Nara, TY (2004) Structure, function, and dietary regulation of Δ6, Δ5, and Δ9 desaturases. Nutrition 24, 345–376.
17. Castro, LFC, Tocher, DR & Monroig, Ó. (2016) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in chordates: insights into the evolution of Fads and Elovl gene repertoire. Prog Lipid Res 62, 25–40.
18. Monroig, Ó, Webb, K, Ibarra-Castro, L, et al. (2011) Biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine fish: characterization of an Elovl4-like elongase from cobia Rachycentron canadum and activation of the pathway during early life stages. Aquaculture 312, 145–153.
19. Morais, S, Monroig, Ó, Zheng, X, et al. (2009) Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in atlantic salmon: characterization of ELOVL5-and ELOVL2-like elongases. Mar Biotechnol 11, 627–639.
20. Venegas-Calerón, M, Sayanova, O & Napier, JA. (2010) An alternative to fish oils: metabolic engineering of oil-seed crops to produce omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 49, 108–119.
21. Kabeya, N, Fonseca, MM, Ferrier, DE, et al. (2018) Genes for de novo biosynthesis of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are widespread in animals. Sci Adv 4, eaar6849.
22. Bell, JG, McEvoy, J, Tocher, DR, et al. (2001) Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid compositions and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr 131, 1535–1543.
23. Ruyter, B & Thomassen, MS (1999) Metabolism of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Atlantic salmon liver: stimulation by essential fatty acid deficiency. Lipids 34, 1167–1176.
24. Sissener, N, Sanden, M, Torstensen, B, et al. (2016) High dietary 18: 2n-6/18:3n-3 ratio does not inhibit elongation and desaturation of 18:3n-3 to EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult Nutr 23, 899–909.
25. Turchini, G, Hermon, K, Cleveland, B, et al. (2013) Seven fish oil substitutes over a rainbow trout grow-out cycle: I) Effects on performance and fatty acid metabolism. Aquacult Nutr 19, 82–94.
26. Tocher, D, Bell, JG, Dick, J, et al. (1997) Fatty acyl desaturation in isolated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): stimulation by dietary borage oil containing γ-linolenic acid. Lipids 32, 1237–1247.
27. Tocher, DR, Bell, JG, Dick, JR, et al. (2000) Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) undergoing parr-smolt transformation and the effects of dietary linseed and rapeseed oils. Fish Physiol Biochem 23, 59–73.
28. Giri, SS, Graham, J, Hamid, NKA, et al. (2016) Dietary micronutrients and in vivo n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 452, Suppl. C, 416–425.
29. Nordgarden, U, Torstensen, BE, Frøyland, L, et al. (2003) Seasonally changing metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) II – β-oxidation capacity and fatty acid composition in muscle tissues and plasma lipoproteins. Aquacult Nutr 9, 295–303.
30. Tocher, D, Fonseca-Madrigal, J, Bell, JG, et al. (2002) Effects of diets containing linseed oil on fatty acid desaturation and oxidation in hepatocytes and intestinal enterocytes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiol Biochem 26, 157–170.
31. Glencross, B, Tocher, D, Matthew, C, et al. (2014) Interactions between dietary docosahexaenoic acid and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on performance and fatty acid retention in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiol Biochem 40, 1213–1227.
32. Thanuthong, T, Francis, DS, Manickam, E, et al. (2011) Fish oil replacement in rainbow trout diets and total dietary PUFA content: II) Effects on fatty acid metabolism and in vivo fatty acid bioconversion. Aquaculture 322–323, 99–108.
33. Thomassen, MS, Rein, D, Berge, GM, et al. (2012) High dietary EPA does not inhibit Delta 5 and Delta 6 desaturases in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed rapeseed oil diets. Aquaculture 360, 78–85.
34. Turchini, GM & Francis, DS. (2009) Fatty acid metabolism (desaturation, elongation and β-oxidation) in rainbow trout fed fish oil- or linseed oil-based diets. Br J Nutr 102, 69–81.
35. Mellery, J, Geay, F, Tocher, DR, et al. (2016) Temperature increase negatively affects the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a linseed oil-based diet. PLOS ONE 11, e0164478.
36. Glencross, BD. (2009) Exploring the nutritional demand for essential fatty acids by aquaculture species. Rev Aquac 1, 71–124.
37. Kjær, MA, Ruyter, B, Berge, GM, et al. (2016) Regulation of the omega-3 fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. PLOS ONE 11, e0168230.
38. Leaver, MJ, Villeneuve, LAN, Obach, A, et al. (2008) Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). BMC Genomics 9, 299.
39. Tocher, DR, Bell, JG, Dick, JR, et al. (2003) Effects of dietary vegetable oil on Atlantic salmon hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation and liver fatty acid compositions. Lipids 38, 723–732.
40. Turchini, GM, Nichols, PD, Barrow, C, et al. (2011) Jumping on the omega-3 bandwagon: distinguishing the role of long-chain and short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52, 795–803.
41. Xue, X, Hixson, SM, Hori, TS, et al. (2015) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) liver transcriptome response to diets containing Camelina sativa products. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 14, 1–15.
42. Lewis, MJ, Hamid, NKA, Alhazzaa, R, et al. (2013) Targeted dietary micronutrient fortification modulates n-3 LC-PUFA pathway activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 412, 215–222.
43. Senadheera, SD, Turchini, GM, Thanuthong, T, et al. (2012) Effects of dietary iron supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed vegetable oil based diets. Aquaculture 342, 80–88.
44. Senadheera, SD, Turchini, GM, Thanuthong, T, et al. (2012) Effects of dietary vitamin B6 supplementation on fillet fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of rainbow trout fed vegetable oil based diets. J Agric Food Chem 60, 2343–2353.
45. Zheng, X, Torstensen, BE, Tocher, DR, et al. (2005) Environmental and dietary influences on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes in liver of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Biochim Biophys Acta 1734, 13–24.
46. Tocher, DR. (2010) Fatty acid requirements in ontogeny of marine and freshwater fish. Aquac Res 41, 717–732.
47. Christenson, JK, O’Kane, GM, Farmery, AK, et al. (2017) The barriers and drivers of seafood consumption in Australia: a narrative literature review. Int J Consum Stud 41, 299–311.
48. Strobel, C, Jahreis, G & Kuhnt, K (2012) Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products. Lipids Health Dis 11, 144.
49. Tacon, AGJ & Metian, M (2015) Feed matters: satisfying the feed demand of aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci Aquac 23, 1–10.
50. Talbot, C, Corneillie, S & Korsøen, Ø (1999) Pattern of feed intake in four species of fish under commercial farming conditions: implications for feeding management. Aquac Res 30, 509–518.
51. Francis, DS, Thanuthong, T, Senadheera, SPSD, et al. (2014)
n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods. Fish Physiol Biochem 40, 577–593.
52. Emery, JA, Hermon, K, Hamid, NK, et al. (2013) Δ-6 desaturase substrate competition: dietary linoleic acid (18∶2n-6) has only trivial effects on α-linolenic acid (18∶3n-3) bioconversion in the teleost rainbow trout. PLOS ONE 8, e57463.
53. Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane-Stanley, G (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
54. Norambuena, F, Lewis, M, Hamid, NKA, et al. (2013) Fish oil replacement in current aquaculture feed: is cholesterol a hidden treasure for fish nutrition? PLOS ONE 8, e81705.
55. Parrish, CC (2016) Effect of replacing fish oil and fish meal in aquafeeds with terrestrial products on growth performance and chemical composition in atlantic salmon. In International Symposium of Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF 2016), Sun Valley, Idaho, USA.
56. Atkinson, J, Hilton, J & Slinger, S (1984) Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as an indicator of feed digestibility in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 41, 1384–1386.
57. Turchini, GM, Francis, DS & De Silva, SS (2006) Fatty acid metabolism in the freshwater fish Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 144, 110–118.
58. Turchini, G, Francis, D & De Silva, S (2007) A whole body, in vivo, fatty acid balance method to quantify PUFA metabolism (desaturation, elongation and beta-oxidation). Lipids 42, 1065–1071.
59. Rosenlund, G, Torstensen, BE, Stubhaug, I, et al. (2016) Atlantic salmon require long-chain n-3 fatty acids for optimal growth throughout the seawater period. J Nutr Sci 5, e19.
60. Føre, M, Alver, M, Alfredsen, JA, et al. (2016) Modelling growth performance and feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in commercial-size aquaculture net pens: model details and validation through full-scale experiments. Aquaculture 464, 268–278.
61. Betancor, M, Atalah, E, Caballero, M, et al. (2011))
α-Tocopherol in weaning diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) improves survival and reduces tissue damage caused by excess dietary DHA contents. Aquacult Nutr 17, e112–e122.
62. Glencross, B & Rutherford, N (2011) A determination of the quantitative requirements for docosahexaenoic acid for juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Aquacult Nutr 17, e536–e548.
63. Ostbye, TK, Kjaer, MA, Rora, AMB, et al. (2011) High n-3 HUFA levels in the diet of Atlantic salmon affect muscle and mitochondrial membrane lipids and their susceptibility to oxidative stress. Aquacult Nutr 17, 177–190.
64. Ruyter, B, Rosjo, C, Einen, O, et al. (2000) Essential fatty acids in Atlantic salmon: effects of increasing dietary doses of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of liver, blood and carcass. Aquacult Nutr 6, 119–127.
65. Sales, J & Glencross, B (2011) A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary marine oil replacement with vegetable oils on growth, feed conversion and muscle fatty acid composition of fish species. Aquacult Nutr 17, e271–e287.
66. Sanden, M, Stubhaug, I, Berntssen, MH, et al. (2011) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a net producer of long-chain marine ω-3 fatty acids. J Agric Food Chem 59, 12697–12706.
67. Miller, MR, Nichols, PD & Carter, CG. (2008)
n-3 Oil sources for use in aquaculture–alternatives to the unsustainable harvest of wild fish. Nutr Res Rev 21, 85–96.
68. Bell, JG, Henderson, RJ, Tocher, DR, et al. (2004) Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet. Lipids 39, 223–232.
69. McKenzie, D, Higgs, D, Dosanjh, B, et al. (1998) Dietary fatty acid composition influences swimming performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in seawater. Fish Physiol Biochem 19, 111–122.
70. Sargent, JR, Tocher, DR & Bell, JG (2003) 4 – The lipids. In Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed., pp. 181–257 [JEHW Hardy, editor]. San Diego: Academic Press.
71. Bell, JG, Pratoomyot, J, Strachan, F, et al. (2010) Growth, flesh adiposity and fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families with contrasting flesh adiposity: effects of replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils. Aquaculture 306, 225–232.
72. Hixson, SM, Parrish, CC & Anderson, DM. (2014) Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality. Food Chem 157, 51–61.
73. Stubhaug, I, Lie, Ø & Torstensen, BE. (2007) Fatty acid productive value and β-oxidation capacity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed on different lipid sources along the whole growth period. Aquacult Nutr 13, 145–155.
74. Turchini, G, Francis, D, Senadheera, S, et al. (2011) Fish oil replacement with different vegetable oils in Murray cod: evidence of an “omega-3 sparing effect” by other dietary fatty acids. Aquaculture 315, 250–259.
75. Mourente, G, Dick, JR, Bell, JG, et al. (2005) Effect of partial substitution of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils on desaturation and β-oxidation of [1-14C]18:3n-3 (LNA) and [1-14C]20:5n-3 (EPA) in hepatocytes and enterocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Aquaculture 248, 173–186.
76. Bell, JG, Henderson, RJ, Tocher, DR, et al. (2002) Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr 132, 222–230.
77. Budge, SM, Penney, SN & Lall, SP (2011) Response of tissue lipids to diet variation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): implications for estimating diets with fatty acid analysis. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 409, 267–274.
78. Raz, A, Kamin-Belsky, N, Przedecki, F, et al. (1997) Fish oil inhibits Δ6 desaturase activity in vivo: utility in a dietary paradigm to obtain mice depleted of arachidonic acid. J Nutr Biochem 8, 558–565.
79. Codabaccus, BM, Carter, CG, Bridle, AR, et al. (2012) The “n-3 LC-PUFA sparing effect” of modified dietary n-3 LC-PUFA content and DHA to EPA ratio in Atlantic salmon smolt. Aquaculture 356–357, 135–140.
80. Eroldoğan, TO, Yılmaz, AH, Turchini, GM, et al. (2013) Fatty acid metabolism in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): effects of n-6 PUFA and MUFA in fish oil replaced diets. Fish Physiol Biochem 39, 941–955.
81. Rombenso, AN, Trushenski, JT, Jirsa, D, et al. (2015) Successful fish oil sparing in white seabass feeds using saturated fatty acid-rich soybean oil and 22: 6n-3 (DHA) supplementation. Aquaculture 448, 176–185.
82. Trushenski, J, Mulligan, B, Jirsa, D, et al. (2013) Sparing fish oil with soybean oil in feeds for White Seabass: effects of inclusion rate and soybean oil composition. North Am J Aqualcult 75, 305–315.
83. Bell, JG, McGhee, F, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2003) Rapeseed oil as an alternative to marine fish oil in diets of post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): changes in flesh fatty acid composition and effectiveness of subsequent fish oil “wash out”. Aquaculture 218, 515–528.
84. Bell, JG, Tocher, DR, Henderson, RJ, et al. (2003) Altered fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing linseed and rapeseed oils can be partially restored by a subsequent fish oil finishing diet. J Nutr 133, 2793–2801.
85. Sinclair, AJ, Attar-Bashi, NM & Li, D (2002) What is the role of α-linolenic acid for mammals? Lipids 37, 1113–1123.
86. Berge, GM, Ruyter, B & Asgard, T (2004) Conjugated linoleic acid in diets for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): effects on fish performance, proximate composition, fatty acid and mineral content. Aquaculture 237, 365–380.
87. Codabaccus, MB, Bridle, AR, Nichols, PD, et al. (2011) Effect of feeding Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) a diet enriched with stearidonic acid from parr to smolt on growth and n-3 long-chain PUFA biosynthesis. Br J Nutr 105, 1772–1782.
88. Bransden, MP, Carter, CG & Nichols, PD (2003) Replacement of fish oil with sunflower oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): effect on growth performance, tissue fatty acid composition and disease resistance. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 135, 611–625.
89. Pratoomyot, J, Bendiksen, EA, Bell, JG, et al. (2010) Effects of increasing replacement of dietary fishmeal with plant protein sources on growth performance and body lipid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 305, 124–132.