Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs

  • Fengna Li (a1), Yehui Duan (a1) (a2), Yinghui Li (a1) (a2), Yulong Tang (a1), Meimei Geng (a1), Oso Abimbola Oladele (a3), Sung Woo Kim (a4) and Yulong Yin (a1) (a5)...

Abstract

Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1–5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1–5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1–5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Y. Yin, email yinyulong@isa.ac.cn

References

Hide All
1 Yamazaki, K, Fujikawa, M, Hamazaki, T, et al. (1992) Comparison of the conversion rates of α-linolenic acid (18:3(n-3)) and stearidonic acid (18:4(n-3)) to longer polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats. Biochimi Biophys Acta 1123, 1826.
2 Astorg, P, Arnault, N, Czernichow, S, et al. (2004) Dietary intakes and food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in French adult men and women. Lipids 39, 527535.
3 Blasbalg, TL, Hibbeln, JR, Ramsden, CE, et al. (2011) Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 950962.
4 Contreras, MA & Rapoport, SI (2002) Recent studies on interactions between n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain and other tissues. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 267272.
5 DeMar, JC Jr, Ma, K, Bell, JM, et al. (2006) One generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in rats. J Lipid Res 47, 172180.
6 Igarashi, M, DeMar, JC Jr, Ma, K, et al. (2007) Upregulated liver conversion of α-linolenic acid to docosahexaenoic acid in rats on a 15 week n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. J Lipid Res 48, 152164.
7 Igarashi, M, Ma, K, Chang, L, et al. (2008) Rapoport, rat heart cannot synthesize docosahexaenoic acid from circulating α-linolenic acid because it lacks elongase-2. J Lipid Res 49, 17351745.
8 Simopoulos, AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56, 365379.
9 Simopoulos, AP (2008) The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233, 674688.
10 Huang, FR, Zhan, ZP, Luo, J, et al. (2008) Duration of dietary linseed feeding affects the intramuscular fat, muscle mass and fatty acid composition in pig muscle. Livest Sci 118, 132139.
11 Bonen, A, Chabowski, A, Luiken, JJ, et al. (2007) Is membrane transport of FFA mediated by lipid, protein, or both? Mechanisms and regulation of protein-mediated cellular fatty acid uptake: molecular, biochemical, and physiological evidence (invited review). Physiology (Bethesda) 22, 1529.
12 DiRusso, CC, Li, H, Darwis, D, et al. (2005) Comparative biochemical studies of the murine fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) expressed in yeast. J Biol Chem 280, 1682916837.
13 Gimeno, RE, Ortegon, AM, Patel, S, et al. (2003) Characterization of a heart-specific fatty acid transport protein. J Biol Chem 278, 1603916044.
14 Doege, H & Stahl, A (2006) Protein-mediated fatty acid uptake: novel insights from in vivo models. Physiology (Bethesda) 21, 259268.
15 Lobo, S, Wiczer, BM, Smith, AJ, et al. (2007) Fatty acid metabolism in adipocytes: functional analysis of fatty acid transport proteins 1 and 4. J Lipid Res 48, 609620.
16 Yin, YL, Yao, K, Liu, ZJ, et al. (2010) Supplementing l-leucine to a low-protein diet increases tissue protein synthesis in weanling pigs. Amino Acids 39, 14771486.
17 Li, FN, Yin, YL, Tan, BE, et al. (2011) Leucine nutrition in animals and humans: mTOR signaling and beyond. Amino Acids 41, 11851193.
18 Duan, YF, Li, FN, Liu, HG, et al. (2015) Nutritional and regulatory roles of leucine in muscle growth and fat reduction. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 20, 796813.
19 Suryawan, A & Davis, TA (2011) Regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids in muscle of neonates. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 16, 14451460.
20 Duan, Y, Li, F, Li, L, et al. (2014) n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is involved in regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation in pigs. Br J Nutr 111, 445451.
21 Deng, D, Yao, K, Chu, WY, et al. (2009) Impaired translation initiation activation and reduced protein synthesis in weaned piglets fed a low-protein diet. J Nutr Biochem 20, 544552.
22 Wu, X, Yin, YL, Li, TJ, et al. (2010) Dietary supplementation with l-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Amino Acids 39, 831839.
23 Li, X, Xiong, H, Yang, K, et al. (2011) Effects of rice dreg protein and its hydrolysate on growth performance and small intestine morphology of early-weaned rats. J Sci Food Agric 91, 687693.
24 Tan, B, Yin, YL, Liu, ZQ, et al. (2008) Dietary l-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs. Amino Acids 27, 169175.
25 Tan, BE, Li, XG, Kong, XF, et al. (2009) Dietary l-arginine supplementation enhances the immune status in early-weaned piglets. Amino Acids 37, 323331.
26 Demirel, G, Wachira, AM, Sinclair, LA, et al. (2004) Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Br J Nutr 91, 551565.
27 Yin, YL, McEvoy, J, Souffrant, WB, et al. (2000) Apparent digestibility (ileal and overall) of nutrients and endogenous nitrogen losses in growing pigs fed wheat or wheat by-products without or with xylanase supplementation. Livest Prod Sci 62, 119132.
28 Ren, WK, Yin, J, Wu, MM, et al. (2014) Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of l-arginine or l-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. PLOS ONE 9, e88335.
29 Sales, F, Pacheco, D, Blair, H, et al. (2013) Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term. Springerplus 2, 483.
30 Ren, WK, Chen, S, Yin, J, et al. (2014) Dietary arginine supplementation of mice alters the microbial population and activates intestinal innate immunity. J Nutr 144, 568579.
31 Russo, GL (2009) Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: from biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem Pharmacol 77, 937946.
32 Enser, M, Richardson, RI, Wood, JD, et al. (2000) Feeding linseed to increase the n-3 PUFA of pork: fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue, liver and sausages. Meat Sci 55, 201212.
33 Nuernberg, K, Fischer, K, Nuernberg, G, et al. (2005) Effects of dietary olive and linseed oil on lipid composition, meat quality, sensory characteristics and muscle structure in pigs. Meat Sci 70, 6374.
34 Bergeron, K, Julien, P, Davis, TA, et al. (2007) Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition. J Lipid Res 48, 23962410.
35 Smith, GI, Atherton, P, Reeds, DN, et al. (2011) Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 402412.
36 Lee, JH, Tachibana, H, Morinaga, Y, et al. (2009) Modulation of proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells by fatty acids. Life Sci 84, 415420.
37 Briolay, A, Jaafar, R, Nemoz, G, et al. (2013) Myogenic differentiation and lipid-raft composition of L6 skeletal muscle cells are modulated by PUFAs. Biochim Biophys Acta 1828, 602613.
38 Rennie, MJ, Bohé, J, Smith, K, et al. (2006) Branched-chain amino acids as fuels and anabolic signals in human muscle. J Nutr 136, Suppl. 1, 264S268S.
39 Troy, D, Pearce, R, Byrne, B, et al. (2006) 52nd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
40 Bickerton, AS, Roberts, R, Fielding, BA, et al. (2007) Preferential uptake of dietary fatty acids in adipose tissue and muscle in the postprandial period. Diabetes 56, 168176.
41 Hall, AM, Smith, AJ & Bernlohr, DA (2003) Characterization of the acyl-CoA synthetase activity of purified murine fatty acid transport protein 1. J Biol Chem 278, 4300843013.
42 Larqué, E, Krauss-Etschmann, S, Campoy, C, et al. (2006) Docosahexaenoic acid supply in pregnancy affects placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 853861.
43 Zhan, T, Poppelreuther, M, Ehehalt, R, et al. (2012) Overexpressed FATP1, ACSVL4/FATP4 and ACSL1 increase the cellular fatty acid uptake of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but are localized on intracellular membranes. PlOS ONE 7, e45087.
44 Sebastián, D, Guitart, M, García-Martínez, C, et al. (2009) Novel role of FATP1 in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells. J Lipid Res 50, 17891799.
45 Jeppesen, J, Jordy, AB, Sjøberg, KA, et al. (2012) Enhanced fatty acid oxidation and FATP4 protein expression after endurance exercise training in human skeletal muscle. PLOS ONE 7, e29391.
46 Numa, S, Nakanishi, S, Hashimoto, T, et al. (1970) Role of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the control of fatty acid synthesis. Vitam Horm 28, 213243.
47 Wang, YC, Kuo, WH, Chen, CY, et al. (2010) Docosahexaenoic acid regulates serum amyloid A protein to promote lipolysis through down regulation of perilipin. J Nutr Biochem 21, 317324.
48 Badin, PM, Louche, K, Mairal, A, et al. (2011) Altered skeletal muscle lipase expression and activity contribute to insulin resistance in humans. Diabetes 60, 17341742.
49 Berry, CB, Hayes, D, Murphy, A, et al. (2005) Differential modulation of the glutamate transporters GLT1, GLAST and EAAC1 by docosahexaenoic acid. Brain Res 1037, 123133.
50 Drummond, MJ, Fry, CS, Glynn, EL, et al. (2011) Skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression is increased in young and older adults following resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 111, 135142.
51 Suryawan, A, Gazzaneo, MC, Almonaci, RD, et al. (2010) SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. FASEB J 24, (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 331.4.
52 Goberdhan, DC, Meredith, D, Boyd, CA, et al. (2005) PAT-related amino acid transporters regulate growth via a novel mechanism that does not require bulk transport of amino acids. Development 132, 23652375.
53 Ögmundsdóttir, MH, Heublein, S, Kazi, S, et al. (2012) Proton-assisted amino acid transporter PAT1 complexes with Rag GTPases and activates TORC1 on late endosomal and lysosomal membranes. PlOS ONE 7, e36616.
54 Suryawan, A & Davis, TA (2010) Abundance and activation of mTORC1 regulators in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs are modulated by insulin, amino acids, and age. J Appl Physiol 109, 14481454.

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Li supplementary material
Table S1

 PDF (94 KB)
94 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed