Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Graham C. Burdge
Affiliation:
Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, UK
Yvonne E. Finnegan
Affiliation:
Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Unit, University of Reading, UK
Anne M. Minihane
Affiliation:
Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Unit, University of Reading, UK
Christine M. Williams
Affiliation:
Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Unit, University of Reading, UK
Stephen A. Wootton
Affiliation:
Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, UK
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

The effect of increased dietary intakes of α-linolenic acid (ALNA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 2 months upon plasma lipid composition and capacity for conversion of ALNA to longer-chain metabolites was investigated in healthy men (52 (SD 12) years). After a 4-week baseline period when the subjects substituted a control spread, a test meal containing [U-13C]ALNA (700 mg) was consumed to measure conversion to EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA over 48 h. Subjects were then randomised to one of three groups for 8 weeks before repeating the tracer study: (1) continued on same intake (control, n 5); (2) increased ALNA intake (10 g/d, n 4); (3) increased EPA+DHA intake (1·5 g/d, n 5). At baseline, apparent fractional conversion of labelled ALNA was: EPA 2·80, DPA 1·20 and DHA 0·04 %. After 8 weeks on the control diet, plasma lipid composition and [13C]ALNA conversion remained unchanged compared with baseline. The high-ALNA diet resulted in raised plasma triacylglycerol-EPA and -DPA concentrations and phosphatidylcholine-EPA concentration, whilst [13C]ALNA conversion was similar to baseline. The high-(EPA+DHA) diet raised plasma phosphatidylcholine-EPA and -DHA concentrations, decreased [13C]ALNA conversion to EPA (2-fold) and DPA (4-fold), whilst [13C]ALNA conversion to DHA was unchanged. The dietary interventions did not alter partitioning of ALNA towards β-oxidation. The present results indicate ALNA conversion was down-regulated by increased product (EPA+DHA) availability, but was not up-regulated by increased substrate (ALNA) consumption. This suggests regulation of ALNA conversion may limit the influence of variations in dietary n-3 fatty acid intake on plasma lipid compositions.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2003

References

Allman, MA, Pena, MM & Peng, D (1995) Supplementation with flaxseed oil versus sunflower oil in healthy young men when consuming a low fat diet: effects on platelet composition and function. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 169178.Google ScholarPubMed
Babcock, T, Helton, WS & Espat, NJ (2000) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): an antiinflammatory omega-3 fat with potential clinical applications. Nutrition 16, 11161118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ball, M & Mann, J (1988) Lipids and heart disease. Oxford, New York, Tokyo: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Beitz, J, Mest, HJ & Forster, W (1981) Influence of linseed oil diet on the pattern of serum phospholipids in man. Acta Biol Med Ger 40, K31K35.Google ScholarPubMed
Bennoson, J, Humayun, MA, Jones, AE, Hounslow, A & Wootton, SA (1999) Within-individual variability in the gastrointestinal handling and metabolism of [1,1,1,-13C]tripalmitin. (Abstr). Proc Nutr Soc 58, 25A Abstr.Google Scholar
Bretillon, L, Chardigny, JM & Sebedio, JL et al. (2001) Isomerization increases the postprandial oxidation of linoleic acid but not α-linoleic acid in men. J Lipid Res 42, 995997.Google ScholarPubMed
British Nutrition Foundation (1999) n-3 Fatty acids and Health. Briefing Paper. London: BNF.Google Scholar
Burdge, GC, Jones, AE & Wootton, SA (2002) Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of α-linolenic acid metabolism in young men. Br J Nutr 88, 355363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burdge, GC & Wootton, SA (2002) Conversion of α-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Br J Nutr 88, 411420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burdge, GC, Wright, P, Jones, AE & Wootton, SA (2000) A method for separation of phosphatidylcholine, triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol esters from plasma by solid phase extraction. Br J Nutr 84, 781787.Google ScholarPubMed
Chan, JK, McDonald, BE, Gerrard, JM, Bruce, VM, Weaver, BJ & Holub, BJ (1993) Effect of dietary α-linolenic acid and its ratio to linoleic acid on platelet and plasma fatty acids and thrombogenesis. Lipids 28, 811817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunnane, SC, Hamadeh, MJ, Leide, AC, Thompson, LU, Wolever, TMS & Jenkins, DJA (1995) Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 6268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (1994) In Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease: Report of the Cardiovascular Review Group Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 46. London: H. M. Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Emken, EA, Adolf, RO, Duval, SM & Nelson, GJ (1999) Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on desaturation and uptake in vivo of isotope-labeled oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids by male subjects. Lipids 34, 785798.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emken, EA, Adolf, RO, Duval, S, Nelson, G & Benito, P (2002) Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on metabolism of isotope-labeled oleic, linoleic and CLA isomers in women. Lipids 37, 741750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emken, EA, Adolf, RO & Gully, RM (1994) Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim Biophys Acta 1213, 277288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezaki, O, Takahashi, M & Shigematsu, T (1999) Long-term effects of dietary alpha linoleic acid from perilla oil on serum fatty acid composition and on the risk factors of coronary heart disease in Japanese elderly subjects. ((Tokyo)) J Nutr Sci Vitamin 45, 759772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finnegan, YE, Leigh-Firbank, EC, Minihane, AM & Williams, CM (2001) α-Linolenic acid supplementation does not enrich platelet phospholipids with docosahexaenoic acid. (Abstr). Proc Nutr Soc 60, 22AGoogle Scholar
Finnegan, YE, Minihane, AM & Leigh-Firbank, EC (2003) Plant and marine derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. ((In the Press)). Am J Clin Nutr,(In the Press).Google Scholar
Freese, R, Mutanen, M, Valsta, LM & Salminen, I (1994) Comparison of the effects of two diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids differing in their linoleic/α-linolenic acid ratio on platelet aggregation. Thromb Haemost 71, 7377.Google Scholar
Folch, JL, Lees, M & Sloane-Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497509.Google ScholarPubMed
Gerster, H (1998) Can adults convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:5n-3)? Int J Vit Nutr Res 68, 159173.Google ScholarPubMed
Gregory, J, Foster, K, Tyler, H & Wiseman, M (1990) The dietary and nutritional survey of British adults: a survey of the dietary behaviour, nutritional status and blood pressure of adults ages 16 to 64 years living in Great Britain. London: H. M. Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Hartwell, DL & Henry, CJ (2001) Comparison of a self administered quantitative food amount frequency questionnaire with 4-day estimated food records. Int J Food Sci Nutr 52, 151159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Irving, CS, Wong, WW, Schulman, RJ, Smith, EO & Klein, PD (1983) [13C]Bicarbonate kinetics in humans: intra- vs. inter-individual variations. Am J Physiol 245, R190R202.Google Scholar
Jones, AE, Murphy, JL, Stolinski, M & Wootton, SA (1998) The effect of age and gender on the metabolic disposal of 1-13C palmitic acid. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 2228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, AE, Stolinski, M, Smith, RD, Murphy, JL & Wootton, SA (1999) Effect of fatty acid chain length and saturation on the gastrointestinal handling and metabolic disposal of dietary fatty acids in women. Br J Nutr 81, 3743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kris-Etherton, PM, Shaffer Taylor, D, Yu-Poth, S (2000) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 179188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kwon, JS, Snook, JT, Wardlaw, GM & Hwang, DH (1991) Effects of diets high in saturated fatty acids, canola oil, or safflower oil on platelet function, thromboxane B2 formation and fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 351358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, D, Sinclair, A & Wilson, A (1999) Effect of dietary α-linolenic acid on thrombotic risk factors in vegetarian men. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 872882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLennan, PL (2001) Myocardial membrane fatty acids and the antiarrhythmic actions of dietary fish oil in animal models. Lipids 36, Suppl., S111S114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mantzioris, E, James, MJ, Gibson, RA & Cleland, LG (1995) Differences exist in the relationships between dietary linoleic and α-linolenic acids and their respective long-chain metabolites. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 320324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1997) Dietary Intake of Iodine and Fatty Acids. Food Information Surveillance Sheet no. 127. London: MAFF.Google Scholar
Mori, TA, Burke, V & Puddey, IB (2000) Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 10851094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pawlosky, RJ, Hibbeln, JR, Novotny, JA & Salem, N (2001) Physiological compartmental analysis of α-linolenic acid metabolism in adult humans. J Lipid Res 42, 12571265.Google ScholarPubMed
Salem, N, Pawlosky, R, Wegher, B & Hibbeln, J (1999) In vivo conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in human adults. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 60, 407410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanders, TAB & Rosahani, F (1983) The influence of different types of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood lipids and platelet function in healthy volunteers. Clin Sci 64, 9199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shimokawa, H (2001) Beneficial effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on endothelial vasodilator functions in animals and humans. World Rev Nutr Diet 88, 100108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simopoulos, AP (1997) Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention-management of cardiovascular disease. Can J Pharmacol 75, 234239.Google ScholarPubMed
Simopoulos, AP, Leaf, A & Salem, N (1999) Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Ann Nutr Metab 43, 127130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sprecher, H (2000) Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1486, 219231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vermunt, SHF, Mensink, RP, Simonis, AMG & Hornstra, G (1999) Effects of age and dietary n-3 fatty acids on the metabolism of [13C]-α-linolenic acid. (Abstr). Lipids 34, S127 Abstr.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vermunt, SHF, Mensink, RP, Simonis, AMG & Hornstra, G (2000) Effects of dietary α-linolenic acid on the conversion and oxidation of [13C]-α-linolenic acid. Lipids 35, 137142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, JB, Klein, PD, Schoeller, DA, Kirschner, BS, Park, R & Perman, JA (1982) Diagnosis and differentiation of fat malabsorption in children using [13C]-labelled lipids: trioctanoin, triolein and palmitic acid breath tests. Gastroenterology 82, 911917.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 489 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Access
Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-z76t5 Total loading time: 0.882 Render date: 2021-01-26T16:19:23.201Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "1", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Effect of altered dietary n-3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]α-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards β-oxidation in older men
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *