1 Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
2 Flood, MT, Auerbach, MH & Craig, SAS (2004) A review of the clinical toleration studies of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 1531–1542.
3 Stewart, ML, Nikhanj, SD, Timm, DA, et al. (2010) Evaluation of the effects of four fibers on laxation, gastrointestinal tolerance, and serum markers in healthy humans. Ann Nutr Metab 56, 91–98.
4 Nakagawa, Y, Okamatsu, H & Fujii, Y (1990) Effects of polydextrose feeding on the frequency and feeling of defecation in healthy adult female volunteers. J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci 43, 95–101.
5 Endo, K, Kumemura, M, Nakamura, K, et al. (1991) Effect of high cholesterol diet and polydextrose supplementation on the microflora, bacterial enzyme activity, putrefactive products, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile, weight, and pH of the feces in healthy volunteers. Bifidobact Microflora 10, 53–64.
6 Achour, L, Flourie, B, Briet, F, et al. (1994) Gastrointestinal effects and energy value of polydextrose in healthy, non-obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 1362–1368.
7 Maathuis, A, Hoffman, A, Evans, A, et al. (2009) The effect of the undigested fraction of maize products on the activity and composition of the microbiota determined in a dynamic in vitro model of the human proximal large intestine. J Am Coll Nutr 28, 657–666.
8 Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401–1412.
9 Buddington, RK (2001) The use of nondigestible oligosaccharides to manage the gastrointestinal ecosystem. Micro Ecol Health Dis 13, 9–15.
10 Fuller, R & Gibson, GR (1997) Modification of the intestinal microflora using probiotics and prebiotics. Scand J Gasteroenterol Suppl 222, 28–31.
11 Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2005) Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. Washington, DC: AOAC.
12 American Association of Cereal Chemists (1983) Approved Methods, 8th ed. St Paul: AACC.
13 Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1984) Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed. Washington, DC: AOAC.
14 Chaney, AL & Marbach, EP (1962) Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin Chem 8, 130–132.
15 Erwin, ES, Marco, GJ & Emery, EM (1961) Volatile fatty acid analyses of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J Dairy Sci 44, 1768–1771.
16 Yu, Z & Morrison, M (2004) Improved extraction of PCR-quality community DNA from digesta and fecal samples. BioTechniques 36, 808–812.
17 Hernot, DC, Boileau, TW, Bauer, LL, et al. (2009) In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose. J Agric Food Chem 57, 1354–1361.
18 Deplancke, B, Vidal, O, Ganessunker, D, et al. (2002) Selective growth of mucolytic bacteria including Clostridium perfringens in a neonatal piglet model of total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1117–1125.
19 Middelbos, IS, Godoy, MR, Fastinger, ND, et al. (2007) A dose–response evaluation of spray-dried yeast cell wall supplementation of diets fed to adult dogs: effects on nutrient digestibility, immune indices, and fecal microbial populations. J Anim Sci 85, 3022–3032.
20 Sandler, RS, Stewart, WF, Liberman, JN, et al. (2000) Abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea in the United States: prevalence and impact. Digest Dis Sci 45, 1242–1254.
21 Jie, Z, Bang-yao, L, Ming-jie, X, et al. (2000) Studies on the effects of polydextrose intake on physiologic functions in Chinese people. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1503–1509.
22 Vester Boler, BM, Hernot, DC, Boileau, TW, et al. (2009) Carbohydrates blended with polydextrose lower gas production and short-chain fatty acid production in an in vitro system. Nutr Res 29, 631–639.
23 Bone, E, Tamm, A & Hill, M (1976) The production of urinary phenols by gut bacteria and their possible role in the causation of large bowel cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 29, 1448–1454.
24 Visek, WJ (1978) Diet and cell growth modulation by ammonia. Am J Clin Nutr 31, S216–S220.
25 Bingham, SA (1988) Meat, starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides and large bowel cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 762–767.
26 Fava, F, Mäkivuokko, H, Siljander-Rasi, H, et al. (2007) Effect of polydextrose on intestinal microbes and immune functions in pigs. Br J Nutr 98, 123–133.
27 Hengst, C, Ptok, S, Roessler, A, et al. (2009) Effects of polydextrose supplementation on different faecal parameters in healthy volunteers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60, 96–105.
28 Mäkivuokko, H, Kettunen, H, Saarinen, M, et al. (2007) The effects of cocoa and polydextrose on bacterial fermentation in gastrointestinal tract simulations. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71, 1834–1843.
29 Weaver, CM, Martin, BR, Story, JA, et al. (2010) Novel fibers increase bone calcium content and strength beyond efficiency of large intestine fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 58, 8952–8957.
30 Fastinger, ND, Karr-Lilienthal, LK, Spears, JK, et al. (2008) A novel resistant maltodextrin alters gastrointestinal tolerance factors, fecal characteristics, and fecal microbiota in healthy adult humans. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 356–366.
31 Probert, HM, Apajalahti, JHA, Rautonen, N, et al. (2004) Polydextrose, lactitol, and fructo-oligosaccharide fermentation by colonic bacteria in a three-stage continuous culture system. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 4505–4511.