1. Esser, N, Legrand-Poels, S, Piette, J, et al. (2014) Inflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 105, 141–150.
2. Donath, MY (2011) Inflammation as a sensor of metabolic stress in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology 152, 4005–4006.
3. Chawla, A, Nguyen, KD & Goh, YP (2011) Macrophage-mediated inflammation in metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol 11, 738–749.
4. Wensveen, FM, Valentic, S, Sestan, M, et al. (2015) The ‘Big Bang’ in obese fat: events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Eur J Immunol 45, 2446–2456.
5. Huh, JY, Park, YJ, Ham, M, et al. (2014) Crosstalk between adipocytes and immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Mol Cells 37, 365–371.
6. Fontana, L, Eagon, JC, Trujillo, ME, et al. (2007) Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Diabetes 56, 1010–1013.
7. Costanzo, AE, Taylor, KR, Dutt, S, et al. (2015) Obesity impairs gammadelta T cell homeostasis and antiviral function in humans. PLOS ONE 10, e0120918.
8. Foulds, LM, Boysen, RI, Crane, M, et al. (2008) Molecular identification of lyso-glycerophosphocholines as endogenous immunosuppressives in bovine and rat gonadal fluids. Biol Reprod 79, 525–536.
9. Bochicchio, GV, Joshi, M, Bochicchio, K, et al. (2006) Impact of obesity in the critically ill trauma patient: a prospective study.J Am Coll Surg 203, 533–538.
10. Fuhrman, C, Bonmarin, I, Bitar, D, et al. (2011) Adult intensive-care patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection. Epidemiol Infect 139, 1202–1209.
11. Bronte, V & Pittet, MJ (2013) The spleen in local and systemic regulation of immunity. Immunity 39, 806–818.
12. Lamas, O, Martinez, JA & Marti, A (2004) Decreased splenic mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in diet-induced obese animals. J Physiol Biochem 60, 279–283.
13. Gotoh, K, Inoue, M, Masaki, T, et al. (2012) A novel anti-inflammatory role for spleen-derived interleukin-10 in obesity-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue and liver. Diabetes 61, 1994–2003.
14. Kay, CD & Holub, BJ (2002) The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects. Br J Nutr 88, 389–398.
15. Basu, A, Du, M, Leyva, MJ, et al. (2010) Blueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 140, 1582–1587.
16. Stull, AJ, Cash, KC, Johnson, WD, et al. (2010) Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women. J Nutr 140, 1764–1768.
17. Prior, RL, Cao, G, Prior, RL, et al. (2000) Analysis of botanicals and dietary supplements for antioxidant capacity: a review. J AOAC Int 83, 950–956.
18. Kang, J, Thakali, KM, Jensen, GS, et al. (2015) Phenolic acids of the two major blueberry species in the US Market and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 70, 56–62.
19. Zhu, Y, Ling, W, Guo, H, et al. (2013) Anti-inflammatory effect of purified dietary anthocyanin in adults with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 843–849.
20. Vendrame, S, Daugherty, A, Kristo, AS, et al. (2013) Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption improves inflammatory status in the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Biochem 24, 1508–1512.
21. DeFuria, J, Bennett, G, Strissel, KJ, et al. (2009) Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae. J Nutr 139, 1510–1516.
22. Strissel, KJ, Stancheva, Z, Miyoshi, H, et al. (2007) Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications. Diabetes 56, 2910–2918.
23. Pae, M, Ren, Z, Meydani, M, et al. (2010) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate directly suppresses T cell proliferation through impaired IL-2 utilization and cell cycle progression. J Nutr 140, 1509–1515.
24. Wu, D, Guo, Z, Ren, Z, et al. (2009) Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation through impairment of IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling. Free Radic Biol Med 47, 636–643.
25. Johnson, MH, de Mejia, EG, Fan, J, et al. (2013) Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from blueberry-blackberry fermented beverages inhibit markers of inflammation in macrophages and carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes in vitro
. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 1182–1197.
26. Nile, SH & Park, SW (2014) Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health. Nutrition 30, 134–144.
27. Shi, M, Loftus, H, McAinch, AJ, et al. (2017) Blueberry as a source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and chronic inflammation. J Funct Foods 30, 16–29.
28. Qin, Y, Xia, M, Ma, J, et al. (2009) Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in dyslipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 485–492.
29. Prior, RL, Wu, X, Gu, L, et al. (2008) Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions with dietary fat levels in the C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. J Agric Food Chem 56, 647–653.
30. Prior, RL, Wilkes, SE, Rogers, TR, et al. (2010) Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet. J Agric Food Chem 58, 3970–3976.
31. Lumeng, CN & Saltiel, AR (2011) Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease. J Clin Invest 121, 2111–2117.
32. Milner, JJ & Beck, MA (2012) The impact of obesity on the immune response to infection. Proc Nutr Soc 71, 298–306.
33. Nelms, K, Keegan, AD, Zamorano, J, et al. (1999) The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functions. Annu Rev Immunol 17, 701–738.
34. Swain, SL, Weinberg, AD, English, M, et al. (1990) IL-4 directs the development of Th2-like helper effectors. J Immunol 145, 3796–3806.
35. Odegaard, JI & Chawla, A (2008) Mechanisms of macrophage activation in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4, 619–626.
36. Gordon, S (2003) Alternative activation of macrophages. Nat Rev Immunol 3, 23–35.
37. Sato Mito, N, Suzui, M, Yoshino, H, et al. (2009) Long term effects of high fat and sucrose diets on obesity and lymphocyte proliferation in mice. J Nutr Health Aging 13, 602–606.
38. Tanaka, S, Inoue, S, Isoda, F, et al. (1993) Impaired immunity in obesity: suppressed but reversible lymphocyte responsiveness. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 17, 631–636.
39. Ouchi, N, Parker, JL, Lugus, JJ, et al. (2011) Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol 11, 85–97.
40. Strandberg, L, Verdrengh, M, Enge, M, et al. (2009) Mice chronically fed high-fat diet have increased mortality and disturbed immune response in sepsis. PLoS ONE 4, e7605.
41. Smith, AG, Sheridan, PA, Harp, JB, et al. (2007) Diet-induced obese mice have increased mortality and altered immune responses when infected with influenza virus. J Nutr 137, 1236–1243.
42. Falagas, ME & Kompoti, M (2006) Obesity and infection. Lancet Infect Dis 6, 438–446.
43. Pierpont, YN, Dinh, TP, Salas, RE, et al. (2014) Obesity and surgical wound healing: a current review. ISRN Obes 2014, 638936.