1. Torre, LA, Bray, F, Siegel, RL, et al. (2015) Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 65, 87–108.
2. Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Dikshit, R, et al. (2015) Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 136, E359–E386.
3. Pakzad, R, Mohammadian-Hafshejani, A, Khosravi, B, et al. (2016) The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer and their relationship to development in Asia. Ann Transl Med 4, 29.
4. Ahsan, H, Neugut, AI & Gammon, MD (1997) Association of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with tobacco-related and other malignancies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6, 779–782.
5. Kabat, GC, Shivappa, N & Hebert, JR (2012) Mentholated cigarettes and smoking-related cancers revisited: an ecologic examination. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 63, 132–139.
6. Lu, Y, Shivappa, N, Lin, Y, et al. (2016) Diet-related inflammation and oesophageal cancer by histological type: a nationwide case–control study in Sweden. Eur J Nutr 55, 1683–1694.
7. Zeng, H, Zheng, R, Zhang, S, et al. (2016) Esophageal cancer statistics in China, 2011: estimates based on 177 cancer registries. Thorac Cancer 7, 232–237.
8. Morita, M, Kumashiro, R, Kubo, N, et al. (2010) Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: epidemiology, clinical findings, and prevention. Int J Clin Oncol 15, 126–134.
10. Keibel, A, Singh, V & Sharma, MC (2009) Inflammation, microenvironment, and the immune system in cancer progression. Curr Pharm Des 15, 1949–1955.
11. Pan, MH, Lai, CS, Dushenkov, S, et al. (2009) Modulation of inflammatory genes by natural dietary bioactive compounds. J Agric Food Chem 57, 4467–4477.
12. O’Sullivan, KE, Phelan, JJ, O’Hanlon, C, et al. (2014) The role of inflammation in cancer of the esophagus. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 8, 746–760.
13. Corley, DA, Kerlikowske, K, Verma, R, et al. (2003) Protective association of aspirin/NSAIDs and esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 124, 47–56.
14. de Mello, VD, Schwab, U, Kolehmainen, M, et al. (2011) A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 54, 2755–2767.
15. Khoo, J, Piantadosi, C, Duncan, R, et al. (2011) Comparing effects of a low-energy diet and a high-protein low-fat diet on sexual and endothelial function, urinary tract symptoms, and inflammation in obese diabetic men. J Sex Med 8, 2868–2875.
16. Luciano, M, Mottus, R, Starr, JM, et al. (2012) Depressive symptoms and diet: their effects on prospective inflammation levels in the elderly. Brain Behav Immun 26, 717–720.
17. Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, Hurley, TG, et al. (2014) Designing and developing a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index. Public Health Nutr 17, 1689–1696.
18. Lin, Y, Yngve, A, Lagergren, J, et al. (2012) Dietary intake of lignans and risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Cancer Causes Control 23, 837–844.
19. Qu, X, Ben, Q & Jiang, Y (2013) Consumption of red and processed meat and risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma based on a meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol 23, 762–770.e1.
20. Terry, P, Lagergren, J, Ye, W, et al. (2001) Inverse association between intake of cereal fiber and risk of gastric cardia cancer. Gastroenterology 120, 387–391.
21. Wirth, MD, Burch, J, Shivappa, N, et al. (2014) Dietary inflammatory index scores differ by shift work status: NHANES 2005 to 2010. J Occup Environ Med 56, 145–148.
22. Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, Hurley, TG, et al. (2014) A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS). Public Health Nutr 17, 1825–1833.
23. Shivappa, N, Hebert, JR, Rietzschel, ER, et al. (2015) Associations between dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory markers in the Asklepios Study. Br J Nutr 113, 665–671.
24. Tabung, FK, Steck, SE, Zhang, J, et al. (2015) Construct validation of the dietary inflammatory index among postmenopausal women. Ann Epidemiol 25, 398–405.
25. Zamora-Ros, R, Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, et al. (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory gene interactions in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Bellvitge colorectal cancer case–control study. Genes Nutr 10, 447.
26. Shivappa, N, Zucchetto, A, Montella, M, et al. (2015) Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of colorectal cancer: a case–control study from Italy. Br J Nutr 114, 152–158.
27. Tabung, FK, Steck, SE, Ma, Y, et al. (2015) The association between dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Cancer Causes Control 26, 399–408.
28. Wirth, MD, Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, et al. (2015) The dietary inflammatory index is associated with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Br J Nutr 113, 1819–1827.
29. Shivappa, N, Prizment, AE, Blair, CK, et al. (2014) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23, 2383–2392.
30. Shivappa, N, Bosetti, C, Zucchetto, A, et al. (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case–control study. Br J Nutr 113, 292–298.
31. Shivappa, N, Zucchetto, A, Serraino, D, et al. (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of esophageal squamous cell cancer in a case–control study from Italy. Cancer Causes Control 26, 1439–1447.
32. Shivappa, N, Bosetti, C, Zucchetto, A, et al. (2015) Association between dietary inflammatory index and prostate cancer among Italian men. Br J Nutr 113, 278–283.
33. Shivappa, N, Hebert, JR, Polesel, J, et al. (2016) Inflammatory potential of diet and risk for hepatocellular cancer in a case–control study from Italy. Br J Nutr 115, 324–331.
34. Shivappa, N, Hebert, JR, Anderson, LA, et al. (2017) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of reflux oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a population-based case–control study. Br J Nutr 117, 1323–1331.
35. Zheng, S, Vuitton, L, Sheyhidin, I, et al. (2010) Northwestern China: a place to learn more on oesophageal cancer. Part one: behavioural and environmental risk factors. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22, 917–925.
36. Garbbert, HE, Shimoda, T, Hainaut, P, et al. (2000) Tumours of the oesophagus. In World Health Organization Classification of Tumours Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Digestive System, pp. 9–30 [SR Hamilton and LA Aaltonen, editors]. Lyon: IARC Press.
37. Liang, W, Binns, C, Lee, AH, et al. (2008) The reliability of dietary and lifestyle information obtained from spouses in an elderly Chinese population. Asia Pac J Public Health 20, 87–93.
38. Zhang, T (2010) Investigation on dietary factors and lifestyles of oesophageal cancer patients in Xinjiang. Master’s Thesis, Shihezi University.
39. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) China Food Composition Table, 2nd ed. Beijing: Peking University Medical Press.
41. Liu, J, Li, Z, Cui, J, et al. (2012) Cellular changes in the tumor microenvironment of human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Tumour Biol 33, 495–505.
42. Bonomi, M, Patsias, A, Posner, M, et al. (2014) The role of inflammation in head and neck cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 816, 107–127.
43. Dommels, YE, Haring, MM, Keestra, NG, et al. (2003) The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE(2) synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Carcinogenesis 24, 385–392.
44. Chung, MY, Lim, TG & Lee, KW (2013) Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive phytochemicals against gastroenterological cancer development. World J Gastroenterol 19, 984–993.
45. Fietkau, R, Lewitzki, V, Kuhnt, T, et al. (2013) A disease-specific enteral nutrition formula improves nutritional status and functional performance in patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy: results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. Cancer 119, 3343–3353.
46. Lin, Y, Lagergren, J & Lu, Y (2011) Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of esophageal cancer in a population-based case–control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 128, 676–681.
47. De Groot, KM (2006) Cancer of the oesophagus – quo vadis? S Afr Med J 96, 197–198.
48. Terry, PD, Lagergren, J, Wolk, A, et al. (2003) Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 940–944.
49. Groblewska, M, Mroczko, B, Sosnowska, D, et al. (2012) Interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein in esophageal cancer. Clin Chim Acta 413, 1583–1590.
50. Blank, S, Nienhuser, H, Dreikhausen, L, et al. (2017) Inflammatory cytokines are associated with response and prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. Oncotarget 8, 47518–47532.
51. Lambert, R, Hainaut, P & Parkin, DM (2004) Premalignant lesions of the esophagogastric mucosa. Semin Oncol 31, 498–512.
52. Shivappa, N, Hebert, JR & Rashidkhani, B (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of esophageal squamous cell cancer in a case–control study from Iran. Nutr Cancer 67, 1253–1259.
53. Colleypriest, BJ, Ward, SG & Tosh, D (2009) How does inflammation cause Barrett’s metaplasia? Curr Opin Pharmacol 9, 721–726.
54. Drahos, J, Li, L, Jick, SS, et al. (2016) Metabolic syndrome in relation to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Results from a large population-based case–control study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cancer Epidemiol 42, 9–14.
55. Kavanagh, ME, O’Sullivan, KE, O’Hanlon, C, et al. (2014) The esophagitis to adenocarcinoma sequence; the role of inflammation. Cancer Lett 345, 182–189.
56. Song, JH, Han, YM, Kim, WH, et al. (2016) Oxidative stress from reflux esophagitis to esophageal cancer: the alleviation with antioxidants. Free Radic Res 50, 1071–1079.
57. Maghsudlu, M & Farashahi Yazd, E (2017) Heat-induced inflammation and its role in esophageal cancer. J Dig Dis 18, 431–444.
58. Tang, WR, Chen, ZJ, Lin, K, et al. (2015) Development of esophageal cancer in Chaoshan region, China: association with environmental, genetic and cultural factors. Int J Hyg Environ Health 218, 12–18.
59. Fang, J, Chu, L, Li, C, et al. (2015) JAK2 inhibitor blocks the inflammation and growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro through the JAK/STAT3 pathway. Oncol Rep 33, 494–502.
60. Diakowska, D (2013) Cytokines association with clinical and pathological changes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Dis Markers 35, 883–893.
61. Neto, AG, Whitaker, A & Pei, Z (2016) Microbiome and potential targets for chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Semin Oncol 43, 86–96.