Ahima, RS & Flier, JS (2000) Leptin. Annual Review of Physiology 62, 413–437.
Astrup, A, Buemann, B, Western, P, Toubro, S, Raven, A & Christensen, NJ (1994) Obesity as an adaptation to a high-fat diet: evidence from a cross-sectional study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 350–355.
Awad, AB & Chattopahyay, JP (1986 a) Effect of dietary saturated fatty acids on hormone-sensitive lipolysis in rat adipocytes. Journal of Nutrition 116, 1088–1094.
Awad, AB & Chattopahyay, JP (1986 b) Effect of dietary saturated fatty acids on intracellular free fatty acids and kinetic properties of hormone-sensitive lipase of rat adipocytes. Journal of Nutrition 116, 1095–1100.
Bado, A, Levasseur, S, Attoub, S, Kermorgant, S, Laigneau, JP, Bortoluzzi, MN, Moizo, L, Lehy, T, Guerre-Millo, M, Le Marchand-Brustel, Y & Lewin, MJ (1998) The stomach is a source of leptin. Nature 394, 790–793.
Camara, M, Mourot, J & Février, C (1996) Influence of two dairy fats on lipid synthesis in the pig: comparative study of liver, muscle and the two backfat layers. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 40, 287–295.
Cha, MC & Jones, PJH (1998) Dietary type and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin concentration in rats. Journal of Lipid Research 39, 1655–1660.
Cinti, S, de Matteis, R, Ceresi, E, Pico, C, Oliver, J, Oliver, P, Palou, A, Obrador, A & Maffeis, C (2001) Leptin in the human stomach. Gut 49, 155.
Cinti, S, Matteis, RD, Pico, C, Ceresi, E, Obrador, A, Maffeis, C, Oliver, J & Palou, A (2000) Secretory granules of endocrine and chief cells of human stomach mucosa contain leptin. International Journal of Obesity 24, 789–793.
Considine, RV, Sinha, M, Heiman, M, Kriauciunas, A, Stephens, TW, Nyce, MR, Ohannesian, JP, Marco, CC, McKee, LJ & Bauer, TL (1996) Serum-immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 292–295.
Cunnane, SC & Anderson, MJ (1997) Pure linoleate deficiency in the rat: influence on growth, accumulation of n-6 polyunsaturates and (1-14C]-linoleate oxidation. Journal of Lipid Research 38, 805–812.
Cusin, I, Sainsbury, A, Doyle, P, Rohner-Jeanreneaud, F & Jeanreneaud, B (1995) The ob gene and insulin. A relationship leading to clues to the understanding of obesity. Diabetes 44, 1467–1470.
De Vos, P, Lefevre, AM, Miller, SG, Guerre-Millo, M, Wong, K, Saladin, R, Hamann, LG, Staels, B, Briggs, MR & Auwerx, J (1996) Thiazolidinediones repress ob gene expression in rodents via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 1004–1009.
Frederich, RC, Hamann, A, Anderson, S, Lollmann, B, Lowell, BB & Flier, JS (1995) Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: Evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action. Nature Medicine 1, 1311–1314.
Hardie, LJ, Rayner, DV, Holmes, S & Trayhurn, P (1996) Circulating leptin levels are modulated by fasting, cold exposure and insulin administration in lean but not Zucker (fa/fa) rats as measured by ELISA. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 223, 660–665.
Havel, PJ, Kasim-Karacas, S, Mueller, W, Johnson, PR, Gingerich, RL & Stern, JS (1996) Relationship of plasma leptin to plasma insulin and adiposity in normal weight and overweight women: effects of dietary fat content and sustained weight loss. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 4406–4413.
Jenkins, AB, Markovic, TP, Fleury, A & Campbell, LV (1997) Carbohydrate intake in short-term regulation of leptin in humans. Diabetologia 40, 348–351.
Kawada, T, Kayahasi, S, Hida, Y, Koga, K, Nadachi, Y & Fushiki, T (1998) Fish (bonito) oil supplementation enhances the expression of uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue of rat. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 46, 1225–1227.
Kolaczynski, JW, Considine, RV, Ohannesian, JP, Marco, CC & Caro, JF (1996 a) Response of leptin to short-term and prolonged overfeeding in humans. A link with ketogenesis but not ketones themselves. Diabetes 45, 1511–1515.
Kolaczynski, JW, Ohannesian, JP, Considine, RV, Marco, CC & Caro, JF (1996 b) Response of leptin to short-term and prolonged overfeeding in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 4162–4165.
Leyton, PJ, Drury, PJ & Crawford, MA (1987) Differential oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in vivo in rat. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 383–393.
Lim, K, Shimomura, Y & Suzuki, S (1991) Effect of high-fat diet feeding over generations on body fat accumulation. In Obesity: Dietary Factors and Control, pp. 181–190 [Romsos, DR, Himms-Hagen, J and Suzuki, M, editors]. Basel: Karger.
Lin, X, Chavez, MR, Bruch, RC, Kilroy, GE, Simmons, LA, Lin, L, Braymer, HD, Bray, GA & York, DA (1998) The effects of a high-fat diet on leptin mRNA, serum and the response to leptin are not altered in a rat strain susceptible to high fat diet induced obesity. Journal of Nutrition 128, 1606–1613.
Maffei, M, Halaas, J, Ravussin, E, Pratley, RE, Lee, GH, Zhang, Y, Fei, H, Kim, S, Lallone, R & Ranganathan, S (1995) Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma level and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nature Medicine 1, 1151–1161.
Murata, M, Kaji, H, Takahashi, Y, Lida, K, Mizuno, I, Okimura, Y, Abe, H & Chihara, K (2000) Stimulation by eicosapentaenoic acids of leptin mRNA expression and its secretion in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 270, 343–348.
Murphy, MC, Zampelas, A, Puddicombe, SM, Furlonger, NP, Morgan, LM & Williams, CM (1993) Pretranslational regulation of the expression of the lipoprotein-lipase (EC 3·1·1·34) gene by dietary fatty acids in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 727–736.
Nisoli, E, Carruba, MO, Tonello, C, Macor, C, Federspil, G & Vettro, R (2000) Induction of fatty acid translocase/CD 36, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2, leptin, uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in human subcutaneous fat by lipid infusion. Diabetes 49, 319–324.
Nolan, JJ, Olefski, JM, Nyce, MR, Considine, RV & Caro, JF (1996) Effect of troglitazone on leptin production. Studies in vitro and in human subjects. Diabetes 45, 1276–1278.
Oliver, P, Picó, C & Palou, A (2001) Ontogenesis of leptin expression in different adipose tissue depots in the rat. European Journal of Physiology 442, 383–390.
Palou, A, Serra, F, Bonet, ML & Picó, C (2000) Obesity: molecular bases of a multifactorial problem. European Journal of Nutrition 39, 127–144.
Perdereau, D, Foufelle, F, Gouhot, B, Ferre, P & Girard, J (1992) Influence of diet on the development and regulation of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 387–395.
Perona, JS, Portillo, MP, Macarulla, MT, Tueros, AI & Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V (2000) Influence of different dietary fats on triacylglycerol deposition in rat adipose tissue. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 765–774.
Portillo, MP, Chávarri, M, Durán, D, Rodríguez, VM & Macarulla, MT (2001) Differential effects of diets that provide different lipid sources on hepatic lipogenic activities in rats under ad libitum or restricted feeding. Nutrition 17, 467–473.
Portillo, MP, Serra, F, Simón, E, Del Barrio, AS & Palou, A (1998) Energy restriction with high-fat diet enriched with coconut oil gives higher UCP1 and lower white fat in rats. International Journal of Obesity 22, 974–979.
Portillo, MP, Simón, E, García-Calonge, MA & del Barrio, AS (1999 a) Effect of high-fat diet on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous WAT. European Journal of Nutrition 38, 177–182.
Portillo, MP, Tueros, AI, Perona, JS, Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V, Torres, I & Macarulla, MT (1999 b) Modifications induced by dietary lipid source in adipose tissue phospholipid fatty acids and their consequences in lipid mobilization. British Journal of Nutrition 82, 319–327.
Raclot, T, Groscolas, R, Langin, D & Ferre, F (1997) Site-specific regulation of gene expression by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat white adipose tissues. Journal of Lipid Research 38, 1963–1971.
Reeves, PG, Nielsen, FH & Fahey, GC (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76 A rodent diet. Journal of Nutrition 123, 1939–1951.
Rodríguez, VM, Portillo, MP, Pico, C, Macarulla, MT & Palou, A (2002) Olive oil feeding up-regulates uncoupling protein genes in rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75, 213–220.
Saladin, R, De Vos, P, Guerre-Millo, M, Leturque, A & Girard, J (1995) Transient increase in obese gene expression after food intake or insulin administration. Nature 377, 527–529.
Sinha, MK, Opentanova, I, Ohannesian, JP, Kolaczynski, JW, Heiman, ML, Hale, J, Becker, GW, Bowsher, RR, Stephens, TW & Caro, JF (1996) Evidence of free and bound leptin in human circulation. Studies in lean and obese subjects during short-term fasting. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 1277–1282.
Takahashi, Y & Ide, T (2000) Dietary n-3 fatty acids affect mRNA level of brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1, and white adipose tissue leptin and glucose transporter 4 in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 175–184.
Takeuchi, N, Matsuo, T, Toksyama, K, Shimomura, Y & Suzuki, M (1995) Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard-diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet. Journal of Nutrition 125, 920–925.
Trayhurn, P, Duncan, JS & Rayner, V (1995 a) Acute cold-induced suppression of ob (obese) gene expression in white adipose tissue of mice: mediation by the sympathetic system. Biochemical Journal 311, 729–733.
Trayhurn, P, Hoggard, N, Mercer, JG & Rainer, DV (1999) Leptin: fundamental aspects. Inernational Journal of Obesity 23, Suppl. 1, 22–28.
Trayhurn, P, Thomas, MEA, Duncan, JS & Rayner, DW (1995 b) Effects of fasting and refeeding on ob gene expression in white adipose tissue of lean and obese mice. FEBS Letters 368, 488–490.
Villafuerte, BC, Fine, JB, Bai, Y, Zhao, W, Fleming, S & DiGirolamo, M (2000) Expression of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I are highly correlated and region-specific in adipose tissue of growing rats. Obesity Research 8, 646–654.
Wang, J, Liu, R, Hawkins, M, Barzaiai, N & Rossetti, L (1998) A nutrient-sensing pathway regulates leptin gene expression on muscle and fat. Nature 393, 684–688.