Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12–23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement

  • Umi Fahmida (a1) and Otte Santika (a1)

Abstract

Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12–23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models – with and without fortified foods – were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12–23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12–23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12–23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr U. Fahmida, fax +62 21 391 3933, email umifahmida@gmail.com

Footnotes

Hide All

Disclaimer: Publication of this paper was supported by unrestricted educational grants from PT Sarihusada Generasi Mahardhika and PT Nutricia Indonesia Sejahtera. The papers included in this supplement were invited by the Guest Editors and have undergone the standard journal formal review process. They may be cited. The Guest Editors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Brown, K, Dewey, K & Allen, L (1998) Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries: a review of current scientific knowledge. Geneva: WHO.
2. World Health Organization/United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (2003) Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Geneva: WHO.
3. Fahmida, U, Kolopaking, R, Santika, O, et al. (2015) Effectiveness on improving knowledge, practices, and intakes of ‘key problem nutrients’ of a complementary feeding intervention developed by using linear programming: experience in Lombok, Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 455461.
4. Dibari, F, Diop, EHI, Collins, S, et al. (2012) Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming. J Nutr 142, 955961.
5. Soekarjo, D & Zehner, E (2011) Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study. Matern Child Nutr 7, 112122.
6. Santika, O, Fahmida, U & Ferguson, EL (2009) Development of food-based complementary feeding recommendations for 9-to 11-month-old peri-urban Indonesian infants using linear programming. J Nutr 139, 135141.
7. Harper, TH (2006) Improving Complementary Feeding Practices and Behaviors of Rural Indonesian Infants. Dunedin: Otago University.
8. Fahmida, U, Santika, O, Harper, T, et al. (2009) The cost-to-nutritional benefits of alternative intervention strategies to improve the nutrient intakes of Indonesian children. Ann Nutr Metab 55, Suppl. 1, 9.
9. Ferguson, EL, Darmon, N, Fahmida, U, et al. (2006) Design of optimal food-based complementary feeding recommendations and identification of key ‘problem nutrients’ using goal programming. J Nutr 136, 23992404.
10. Daelmans, B, Ferguson, E, Lutter, CK, et al. (2013) Designing appropriate complementary feeding recommendations: tools for programmatic action. Matern Child Nutr 9, 116130.
11. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (2002) Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition. Rome: Food and Nutrition Division, FAO.
12. World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (2007) Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition – Report of a Joint WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation. Geneva: WHO.
13. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (2002) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand. Rome: Food and Nutrition Division, FAO.
14. Dewey, KG & Brown, KH (2003) Update on technical issues concerning complementary feeding of young children in developing countries and implications for intervention programs. Food Nutr Bull 24, 528.
15. Skau, JK, Bunthang, T, Chamnan, C, et al. (2014) The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6-to 11-month-old Cambodian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 99, 130138.
16. Vossenaar, M & Solomons, NW (2012) The concept of ‘critical nutrient density’ in complementary feeding: the demands on the ‘family foods’ for the nutrient adequacy of young Guatemalan children with continued breastfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 859866.
17. Fahmida, U, Santika, O, Kolopaking, R, et al. (2014) Complementary feeding recommendations based on locally available foods in Indonesia. Food Nutr Bull 35, S174S179.
18. Fahmida, U (2013) Use of fortified foods for Indonesian infants. In Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications, Volume 2, Nutrition and Health, pp. 383393 [V Preedy, editor]. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
19. Semba, RD, Moench-Pfanner, R, Sun, K, et al. (2010) Iron-fortified milk and noodle consumption is associated with lower risk of anemia among children aged 6–59 mo in Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 170176.
20. Fahmida, U (2012) Food-based complementary feeding and its impact on growth: Southeast Asian Perspectives. In Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease, pp. 15991610 [V Preedy, editor]. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
21. Food and Agriculture Organization (2011) Trials of Improved Practices (TIPS): Guiding Notes for TIPS Trainers and Implementers. Rome: FAO.
22. Santika, O, Februhartanty, J & Ariawan, I (2015) Feeding practices of young children aged 12–23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia. Br J Nutr (epublication ahead of print version 21 September 2015).
23. Krebs, NF, Westcott, JE, Culbertson, DL, et al. (2012) Comparison of complementary feeding strategies to meet zinc requirements of older breastfed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 3035.

Keywords

Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12–23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement

  • Umi Fahmida (a1) and Otte Santika (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed