Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method

  • Yasmin Y. Al-Gindan (a1), Catherine R. Hankey (a1), Lindsay Govan (a2), Dympna Gallagher (a3), Steven B. Heymsfield (a4) and Michael E. J. Lean (a1)...

Abstract

The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R 2 and Bland–Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)−0·147 height (cm)−12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)−0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R 2 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R 2 0·70−0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R 2 0·70–0·80), with mean bias of 2·5–4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and agreements suitable for use in groups and populations across a wide range of fatness.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: M. E. J. Lean, fax +44 1412 114 844, email mike.lean@glasgow.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. Heymsfield, SB (2005) Human Body Composition. Champaign, IL: Edwards Brothers.
2. Deurenberg, P, Weststrate, JA & Seidell, JC (1991) Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. Br J Nutr 65, 105114.
3. Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1995) Comparing methods of measurement: why plotting difference against standard method is misleading. Lancet 346, 10851087.
4. Lean, ME, Han, TS & Deurenberg, P (1996) Predicting body composition by densitometry from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 414.
5. Ross, R, Leger, L, Morris, D, et al. (1992) Quantification of adipose tissue by MRI: relationship with anthropometric variables. J Appl Physiol 72, 787795.
6. Kvist, H, Chowdhury, B, Grangard, U, et al. (1988) Total and visceral adipose-tissue volumes derived from measurements with computed tomography in adult men and women: predictive equations. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 13511361.
7. Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1999) Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Stat Methods Med Res 8, 135160.
8. Heymsfield, SB, Gallagher, D, Mayer, L, et al. (2007) Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 8291.
9. He, Q, Heshka, S, Albu, J, et al. (2009) Smaller organ mass with greater age, except for heart. J Appl Physiol 106, 17801784.
10. Bosy-Westphal, A, Schautz, B, Later, W, et al. (2013) What makes a BIA equation unique? Validity of eight-electrode multifrequency BIA to estimate body composition in a healthy adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, Suppl. 1, S14S21.
11. Song, MY, Ruts, E, Kim, J, et al. (2004) Sarcopenia and increased adipose tissue infiltration of muscle in elderly African American women. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 874880.
12. Shen, W, Wang, Z, Tang, H, et al. (2003) Volume estimates by imaging methods: model comparisons with visible woman as the reference. Obes Res 11, 217225.
13. Wang, Z, Zhu, S, Wang, J, et al. (2003) Whole-body skeletal muscle mass: development and validation of total-body potassium prediction models. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 7682.
14. Lohman, TG, Roche, AF & Martorell, R (1988) Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
15. Garrow, JS (1974) Energy Balance and Obesity in Man. Amsterdam; London: North Holland Publishing Co.
16. Snyder, WS, Cook, MJ, Nsset, ES, et al. (1975) Report of The Task Group On Reference Man. International Commission On Radiological Protection No 23. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
17. Sohlstrom, A, Wahlund, LO & Forsum, E (1993) Adipose tissue distribution as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and total body fat by magnetic resonance imaging, underwater weighing, and body-water dilution in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 830838.
18. Gallagher, D, Visser, M, Sepulveda, D, et al. (1996) How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol 143, 228239.
19. Bedogni, G, Pietrobelli, A, Heymsfield, SB, et al. (2001) Is body mass index a measure of adiposity in elderly women? Obes Res 9, 1720.
20. Romero-Corral, A, Montori, VM, Somers, VK, et al. (2006) Association of body weight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of cohort studies. Lancet 368, 666678.
21. Durnin, JV & Womersley, J (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr 32, 7797.
22. Wang, J, Thornton, JC, Kolesnik, S, et al. (2000) Anthropometry in body composition. An overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci 904, 317326.
23. Al-Gindan, YY, Hankey, CR, Leslie, W, et al. (2014) Predicting muscle mass from anthropometry using magnetic resonance imaging as reference: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 72, 113126.
24. Lean, ME, Han, TS & Morrison, CE (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 311, 158161.
25. Han, TS, van Leer, EM, Seidell, JC, et al. (1995) Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ 311, 14011405.
26. Shen, W, Wang, Z, Punyanita, M, et al. (2003) Adipose tissue quantification by imaging methods: a proposed classification. Obes Res 11, 516.
27. Al-Gindan, YY, Hankey, C, Govan, L, et al. (2014) Derivation and validation of simple equations to predict total muscle mass from simple anthropometric and demographic data. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 10411051.
28. Forbes, GB (1987) Human Body Composition. New York: Springer Verlag.
29. Burton, JO, Gray, LJ, Webb, DR, et al. (2012) Association of anthropometric obesity measures with chronic kidney disease risk in a non-diabetic patient population. Nephrol Dial Transplant 27, 18601866.
30. Siri, WE (1993) Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. 1961. Nutrition 9, 480491.
31. Fidanza, F, Keys, A & Anderson, JT (1953) Density of body fat in man and other mammals. J Appl Physiol 6, 252256.
32. Brozek, J, Grande, F, Anderson, JT, et al. (1963) Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 110, 113140.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Al-Gindan supplementary material
Appendix 1

 Word (230 KB)
230 KB

Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method

  • Yasmin Y. Al-Gindan (a1), Catherine R. Hankey (a1), Lindsay Govan (a2), Dympna Gallagher (a3), Steven B. Heymsfield (a4) and Michael E. J. Lean (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.